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(^tptfkgj of Coritis^ Stirnames. 



/^./UA/^ .Ad^^^^j^^^^ 

Rowsa nebaz, ha rowsa da. 

Cornish Provebb. 





The commencement of the 18th century beheld the 
extinction, as a spoken language, of the Celtic dialect of 

This dialect, which differs to a considerable extent from 
that of Wales,t and is most nearly allied to that of Bretagne, 
is now only to be found in a few manuscripts, the most 
remarkable of which are of the 15 th century ; in the names 
of Cornish localities ; and in the surnames borne by many 
inhabitants of the county 4 The latter are especially valu- 
able, inasmuch as they throw light on the names of places 

* The introdiiction of the English Church Service paved the way for 
the gradual decline of the Celtic dialeut of ComwalL In 1602 it was 
going fast into disuse. In the early part of the last century the Cornish 
was still spoken by the fishermen and market women near the extreme 
South-Western point of the county. Cf. Carew and P. Cyc. Pryce tells 
us, in the preface to his work (published 1790), that the Cornish was then 
spoken at the extremity of the county ; and Pol whole (in 1806) adds, 
that he did not believe that there then existed two people who could 
. converse for any continuance in the Cornish, whether ancient or modem. 

t Observe that the Cornish Jlogh means a boy ; guilhin, a &og ; 
ffolvan, a sparrow ; ffuts, a sow ; louttem, a fox ; eroinoc, a lizard ; colh, 
an old man ; conna, the neck ; abrana, the eyebrow ; ail, an angel ; steretif 
a star ; while the "Welsh equivalents are bachgen ; Ih/ffant^ adar y to ; 
hivch; eadnaw, llwynog ; madgall ; henafgwr, henwr ; gwddf; ael; 
angel, cenad; aeren. 

X Pryce gives the Lord's Prayer, Apostles* Creed, and Commandments 
in the anjcient and modem Cornish ; and some proverbs, mottoes, rhymes, 
songs, &c., in the modem vulgar Cornish. 


with which most of them are connected. There is no book 
which treats fully and scientifically of Cornish Surnames. 
The works of Pryce and Pol whele, however, contain the ety- 
mology of many of them.* This information I have of course 
made use of, and to considerable advantage. I have like- 
wise consulted many other works, a list of which will be 
found at the end of this Preface. I have lately been in- 
formed that a work on Cornish Surnames is now coming 
out in parts. To that I have not been at all indebted ; 
indeed, the present volume has been in hand several years, 
and was nearly ready for the press upwards of two years 

r* The basis of a work like the present is of course a good 
collection of names.f For one list I have to thank Miss 
Hezt, sister of Mr. J. H. Hext, late of Gray's Inn. For 
another list I am indebted to Mr. J. C. Hotten, the publisher. 
I have, however, obtained the greatest part of the names 
from the Post-Office Directory for Cornwall and from the 
works of Pryce and Polwhele. The present volume con- 
tains from 1200 to 1400 surnames. Many of these, though 
they are often borne by distinct families, are merely different 
versions of the same name ; while some of them are not 
now in use, at any rate in their present form. Why there 
should be so large a number of Cornish Surnames, and so 
small a number of Welsh Surnames, I am at a loss to com- 
prehend. Another curious fact is that so few of the latter 
should be derived from geographical names. 

In consequence of a resemblance between Cornish and 

* Pryce, Archseol. Comu-Biitannica; Polwhele, History of Cornwall, 
t Non-Celtic names preponderate in Cornwall; perhaps in the pro- 
portion of 10 to 1. 


Welsh names, it is not always possible to distinguish between 
them. Thus Trevor, Pennant, Penrice, Trahern, Gwyn, 
Gwynn, Gwynne, Glynn, Winn, Morgan, are both Welsh 
and Cornish names. It is Indeed often difficult to distin- 
guish between Cornish, French, and Italian names : thus 
Goss, Gosse, and Laity are found both as Cornish and 
French names ; and Tripcony is by some considered to be 
of Italian origin. Further, it by no means follows that, 
because a similar name occurs out of Cornwall, although 
fortified by a co-existing geographical name, it may not 
be also of Cornish origin when found in Cornwall : thus 
Landry is found both in Cornwall and France; but the 
French name is without doubt corrupted from the ancient 
Teutonic name Landericus. Lannion is the name of a place in 
France, C6tes-du-Nord ; but the Cornubian surname Lanyon 
is doubtless irom one of the places so named in the county. 
Fenton is the name of places in the counties of Lincoln, Staf- 
ford, and York ; the surname found in Cornwall may mean 
a spring, fountain, well. The Cornish surname Anderton 
signifies the oak hill ; but the Lancashire local name is of 
quite different origin. These remarks apply to other than 
geographical surnames : thus Derrick is without doubt 
generally corrupted from the Teutonic name Theodoric ; 
but the Cornubian name may mean a grave-digger : while 
the Cornish Connor is etymologically different from the Irish 
name, which is nearly equivalent to Biddulph, Botolph, 
and the O. Norsk Bodulf. 

In most cases, however, Cornish names are very easy of 
identification. Carew wrote : — 

By Tre, Pol, and Pen, 

Tou shall know the Cornish men. 


Camden's rhyme is more comprehensiTe : — 

By Tre, Bos, Pol, Lan, Caer, and Fen, 
Ton may know most Cornish men.* 

The names compounded of Tre^ Pen, Pol, Bo, Bos, Car, 
Lan, and Nan are without doubt the most numerous* 
Between 400 and 500 forms of surnames with the prefix Tre 
are given in the present volume ; about 106 names occur 
under Pen, None of the other prefixes will give 60 sur- 
names. The least frequent is Nan, the names compounded 
with which are under 30. f As it is quite clear that neither 
of the above couplets of Carew and Camden is strictly accu- 
rate, a friend proposes to substitute — 

Tre, Pen, Pol, Bo, 

Ros, Car, Lan, Nan, 
Will make you know 

The Cornish man. 

I will also hazard the following : — 

By Tre, Pol, and Pen, 
'Tis said you know the Cornish men ; 
Yet you may know a Cornish man 
Sometimes by Bos, Car, Bo, Lan, Nan. 

It is not always possible to explain the Celtic Surnames 
of Cornwall by reference to the local dialect singly. Gilbert, 
indeed, speaks of the necessity of consulting the kindred 
British dialects for this purpose. Examples will be found 
in the following pages. 

* Bemaines concerning Britaine, p. 114. Lond., 1614. 

t The calculation as to names compounded of Tre does not include 
names compounded of J2«, Reny Fre^ which are corrupted from Tre, Tren, 
The same remark is applicable to some names compounded of Car^ JPen, 
Fol, Lan, Nan, Ro8, &c. 


A recognition of the principles according to which Cornish 
Surnames have been usually formed will, however, furnish 
a key to most of them. On this point something may be 
gathered from Polwhele,* who, speaking of the tracts of 
land around the castles of the ancient captains and princes 
of Cornwall, says : — " These little territories, the demesne 
lands of their several lords, were not divided into regular 
farms till the Romans. But before the Romans they pro- 
bably gave name to their possessors. And the first Cornish 
families, deducing their names from their places, seem to 
have been distinguished by the appellations pen and tre,'\ 
The pens, it is likely, were the more remarkable hill- 
pastures; the tres, the agricultural spots or places. J lu 
process of time each lordship was separated into various 
farms, by strong and permanent enclosures ; and the farms 
borrowed their respective names from their site on high 
or low ground — their relative situations — their vicinity 
to rivers and the sea — from the forma loci and its quali- 
ties — from woods, and particular trees and other vege- 
table productions — from their pasture and corn — from 
native animals — from tame or domestic animals, and 
from various circumstances which it would be tedious 
to enumerate. These names they imparted (like the origi- 

* Vol. i. b. i. ch. V. p. 166. 

f " Camden says, * trCy pol, and pen ;* but ifpol mean a. pool, it must be 
classed amongst names of places enclosed after the Roman arrival, and 
can only be referred to husbandry or otherwise, as the syllable or 
syllables in conjunction with it may direct." (Folwhele.) 

X Richards (Welsh Diet.) says the ires in Cornwall were for the most 
part only single houses, and the word subjoined only the name of a 
Briton who was once the proprietor; thus Tref-Erbin, Tref-Annian, 
Tref-Gerens, Tre-Lownydd. 


nal lordships and maaors) to their different possessors or 

In illustration of what is here said by Polwhele, I give the 
following : — Carminow, the little rock ; Carnsew, the black 
rock ; Killigarth, the high grove ; Linkinhorne, the iron 
church or enclosure ; Mulfra, the bare hill ; Nancarrow, the 
deer's valley; Pengelley, the head of the grove; Penhale, the 
head of the moor ; Folglase, the green pool ; Trefry, the 
dwelling on a hill ; Tregonning, the dwelling on the 
downs ; Trewinnick, the dwelling on the marsh ; Trewoofe, 
the place frequented by blackbirds ; Tresize, the place for 

In another part of his work Polwhelcj* says the names 
of the most ancient families of Cornwall were taken from 
their seats, as the names of sixch places existed long before 
the appropriation of surnames. And in time the surname 
adopted from the place of residence became an appropriated 
name. Thus, the descendants of Drogo de Polwhele were 
afterwards called by the name of Polwhele. 

Carew^ tells us that John, the son of Thomas, living at 

* The Po8t-Office Directory for Cornwall says, " The whole of East 
Cornwall is full of English names [local ? — E. S. C], and nearly the whole 
of the people are English, though some of the places haye the prefix tre. 
In West Cornwall the places have mostly Cornish names, and the people 
are chiefly of British origin, although much mixed with English. 
There are 800 varieties of local names with the prefix tre; hut the 
whole numher of places beginning with tre is much greater, for some 
of the names are used yery frequently. Fen is given 150 times, and 
Fol about 70. In East Cornwall, Tre, Fen, and Fol are often applied 
with English and Norman names, and constitute the chief yestige of 
Cornish connexion." 

t Vol. ii. p. 43, note. 

t Survey of Cornwall, 1602, p. 55, 


Pendarves, took the name of John Thomas Fendarves, and 
that Richard, his younger brothev, assumed the name of 
Richard Thomas Pendaryes ; and that Trengrove, living 
at Nance, took the name of Nance, &c. &c.* A great 
many Cornish Surnames were undoubtedly thus derived. 
The reverse has, however, sometimes taken place ; the name 
of the place having been first derived fi*om a snrname.f 
Thus Lanhidroch signifies the church of St. Hidroch ; Nan- 
julian, the valley of Julian ; Tredenham, Tredinham, the 
dwelling of Denham or Dinham ; Trederrick, Trelander, 
Treverbin, the dwelling of Derrick, Lander, and Erbin. 
Some local surnames are derived from a man's occupa- 
tion ; thus, Tresare signifies the woodman's or carpenter's 
town; Tyzeer, Tyzzer, the house of the woodman ; Trengofl^ 
the smith's dwelling. 

There are, of course, many Cornish Surnames not com- 
pounded with the vocables tre,pol, &c., some, local, some other- 
wise derived. Surnames are occasionally derived from occu- 
pation or profession only, without reference to locality ; thus 
Gove, a smith ; Angove (an-gove^ " the smith " (with which 
compare the Welsh names Gofi*, Gough, and the Gaelic 
Govan, Gowan); Anaer, Anear, Annear (a»-cwre), "the 
goldsmith ;'' Bather, a coiner or banker; Marrack, a soldier, 
horseman, or knight; Sayer, Soor, a woodman or car- 
penter : whilst others are derived from qualities ; as Huth 
and Worth, high ; Croom, crooked ; Vian, Veen, little ; Glass, 
Glaze, green ; — from animals, as Grew, a crane ; Gist, Keast, 

• Conf. Gilbert, vol. ii. p. 337. 

t " In these latter days the case is reversed ; people impose their own 
names ad libitum on their places of residence.'' {Foltohele, vol. ii. 
p. 43, note.) 


a dog ; — and also from trees and other circumstances ; as 
Warn, Warne, an alder-tree ; Sparnon, Spernon, a thorn. 

Again, other surnames are derived from baptismal names; 
as Clemow, Clemmo, Clamo, Climo, Clyma, Clymo, from 
Clement ; Colenso from Collins ; Faull from Paul ; Jaca, 
Jacka, Jago, Jajo, from James ; Jose from Joseph ; Tubby 
from Thomas, .^c. 

For the better tracing the meaning of Cornish Surnames 
and their connection with each other, it may be as well to 
note the changes which certain vocables are liable to un- 
dergo; thus tre^ a town, dwelling, gentleman's seat, may take 
the form of trefy trev^ treg, trig, tren, trin, treniy tra, dra, dre, 
fra, fre^ free, frea, ren^ renif re ; nan^ nance, nans, nantz* 
signify a valley ; coit, coite, quoit, quite, god, goed, goda, cooae, 
cois, cos, cSs, cooze, coys, cus, gds, Ms, goase (pi. cosow, cosows), 
a wood; gun, gUn, gon, goon, guen, won, woon, a down or 
common ; ford; for, vor, forth, a way ; ent/s, ynez, ince, a 
peninsula made by a river or the sea ; wiggan, wigan, bighan, 
biggan, briggan, brigh, bean, vian, vean, little ; bo, bod, bot, 
bos, bus, bes, bis, a house ; ros, rose, res, a valley; cum, cwm, 
cuum, com, coomb, a valley; ti, ty, te, de, chy, dzhy, tshyi, tshei, 
a house ; tron, dron, traan, train, truyn, trevan, trewyn, a nose, 
promontory, or headland ; arth, ard, varth, warth, worth, high ; 
melin, mellan, vellan, vellen, fellen, a mill ; meas, mes, maes, 
mez, mez, meys, ves, vez, vease, a meadow, open field ; vidhin, 
vidn, vethan, vythyn, bidhin, bidn, meaddan, a meadow; pen, 
pedn, fedn, ben, bedn, the head, end ; pen, pedn, bin, ben, 
bedn, a hill ; denich, thenick, hilly ; hdl, hale, a moor ; kit, 
kill, killi, killy, gilly, gelly, a grove ; les, lis, a court, hall ; 

* See also the name Lanhadem, which is thought to be for Lansladron, 
for Nansladron. 


ban, van, vaddn, vadna, a hill or mountain, also high ; vy, gy, 
gwtfy wy, a river ; car, kar, ker, a rock; carak, carriky rocky; 
liy ISy lehy lUj a place; maeny a stone (pi. vyin, vyyn); gwyn, 
guiUy gtvydn, gutduj wiuy widuy white ; theUy deu, dhUy 8eWy 
su€y zeUy black ; waVy var, uar, ror, wor, uoVy very goVy ar, «r, 
upon ; veovy ver, mer, meery meaVy merey movy great ; tony tSn, 
todny lay ground, perhaps also a hill ; maty maZy vaty voz, 
good ; teg, theky fair ; her, ver, short ; bedhy bethy vethy a 
grave ; ry»«, rin, i. q. rtian, the channel of a river ; trigy 
treger (pi. tregerwn)y an inhabitant. The termination ick 
is sometimes for guiky a village ; at other times it means 
a stream ; but it is also used adjectivelj, as deny a hill ; 
denn-icky thenn-icky hilly. The letters d and dh ; g and h ; 
g and u; k and h ; and k and^, are liable to permutation. 

In the formation of names, the adjective usually stands 
last : thus, Tresevean, the little town ; Tremeer, Tremor, 
the great dwelling ; Trevarthian, the high dwelling. 

In treating of surnames geographically derived, it might 
have been thought sufficient simply to refer to the place 
whence the surnames have been taken. It however struck 
me that it would greatly increase the value of this work 
if the etymology of these geographical names were also 

At the end of the work I have added some Cornish forms 
of Baptismal Names. 

The Cornish motto in the title-page signifies, *' Say little, 
and say well.*' 


G&at's Inn, 

April, 1870. 


BoRLASE : Antiquities, Hifitorical and Monumental, of the 
County of Cornwall; with a Vocabulary of the Comu-British 
Language. By William Borlase. 2nd ed., fo., 1769. 

Brayley and Britton : Topographical and Historical Descrip- 
tion of Cornwall. 8vo, 1806. 

Cahpen : History of Cornwall, Devon, and Dorset ; with the 
Lord*s Prayer and Creed in Ancient Cornish. Fo., 1695. 

Camden : Remaines concerning Britaine. Lond., 1614. 

Carew's Survey of Cornwall, with Notes illustrative of its 
History and Antiquities, by the late Thomas Tonkin ; now first 
published from the original manuscripts, by Lord de Dunstan- 
ville. 4to, 1811. 

Cooke : Topographical Survey of Cornwall and Devon, with 
their Antiquities, Curiosities, Natural History, &c. By G. A. 
Cooke. Fcp. 8vo. 

De la Beghe : Survey of Cornwall. By Sir H. de la Beche. 

Gilbert : An Historical Survey of the County of Cornwall, 
to which is added a complete Heraldry of the same. By C. S. 
Gilbert. 3 vols., Plymouth Dock, roy. 4to, 1817-20. 

Gilbert : The Parochial History of Cornwall, founded on 
the Histories of Hals and Tonkin, with Additions and various 
Appendices. By Davies Gilbert. 4 vols., Lond., 8vo, 1838. 

Halliwell : Rambles in Western Cornwall, by the Footsteps 
of the Giants ; with Notes on the Celtic Remains of the Land's 
End District and the Island of Scilly. By James Orchard 
Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. Fcp.* 4to, 1861. 

HiTCHiNS : The History of Cornwall from the Earliest Records 
and Traditions to the Present Time. By Fortescue Hitchins and 
S. Drew. 2 vols., Helstone, 4to, 1824. 


Leland : De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea. By John Leland. 
Lond., 8vo, 1774. 

Lysons : Topographical and Historical Account of Cornwall, 
its Ancient Inhabitants, Historical Events, Nobility and Gentry, 
Extinct Families, Customs and Superstitions, &c. By the Rev. 
Daniel Samuel Lysons. Roy. 4to, 1814. (Magna Britannia, 
vol. jii.) 

Paris : Guide to Mount's Bay aad Land's End ; with the 
Topography, Antiquities, and Geology of Western Cornwall ; with 
Specimens of the Cornish Dialect. By Dr. Paris. 8vo, 1828. 

Pollen : Description of Cornish Men and Manners. 

POLWHELE : The History of Cornwall. By Richard Polwhele. 
Lond., 4to, 1816. 

Pryge : ArchsBologia Cornu-Britannica ; or, an Essay to pre- 
serve the Ancient Cornish Language ; containing the Rudiments 
of. that Dialect, in a Cornish Grammar and Cornish-English 
Vocabulary. By William Pryce, M.D. Sherborne, 4to, 1790. 

Shirley : The Noble and Gentle Men of England ; or, Notes 
touching the Arms and Descents of the Ancient Knightly and 
Gentle Houses of England. By Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq., 
M.A., F.S.A., &c. Westminster, 4to, 1859. 

Stockdale: Excursions through Cornwall, comprising an 
Historical and Topographical Delineation of the Towns and 
Villages, Antiquities, &c. By F. W. L. Stockdale. 8vo, 1824. 

Topographical and Historical Description of Cornwall, with a 
Map of the County and each Hundred, and thirteen Views, &c. 
&c. Lond., 4to, 1728. (Spec. Brit. Pars.) 

Warner : Tour through Cornwall. 8vo, 1808. 

Whitaker : A Supplement to the First and Second Books of 
the History of Cornwall by John B. D. Whitaker. [By R, 
Polwhele.] Lond. and Exeter, 4to, 1804. 


ACHYM. A family of great antiquity in Cornwall. 
The name is said to mean a descendant, issue, offspring, or 
progeny {ach), Acham appears to be the same name. 

ALSTON. From als-toriy the hill by the sea-shore. 

ANAER, ANEAR, ANNEAR. From an-eure, the 

ANDERTON. From Anderton, in Launcells ; from 
an-dar-ton, the oak hill. The non-Cornish name Anderton 
is from Anderton, a township and estate in co. Lancaster, 
formerly in the possession of the family. 

Af^DREWARTHA. From an-dre-varth, the higher 

ANEAR. See Anaeb. 

ANGEAR. From an^eare, the green or fruitfnl place. 
Cf. Tregare. 

ANGARRACK. From an-camcky the rock. 

ANGILLOY. From an-kelli, the grove ; or an^gillyy 
the wood or grove of hazels. 



the smith. The family appear to have descended from 
Reginald An-gove, of Illogan, in Penwith, who assumed 
the name in memory of his ancestor, by trade a smith. 
"And of this sort of surname in England/' says Hals, 
" thus speaks Verstegan : 

From whence came smith, all be it knight or squire ? 
But from the smith that forgeth in the fire." (Hals.) 

ANGWIN. From an-gwyn, the white (man). An-win 
would signify the marsh or fenny place. 

ANNEAR. See Anaeb. 

ANTRON. From Antron, in the parish of Sithney ; 
from an-tron, the promontory or headland. 

ARGALL, There are however three places in France 
named Argol ; and Lower thinks Argall may possibly be from 
Ercall, a parish in Shropshire. As a Cornish name Argall 
may be from ar-gual, above the wall or fence. 

the barton and manor of Arwinick. Hals gives an absurd 
etymology. The name is from ar'Wmick, upon the marsh. 


BAKE. From an estate of the same name in St. Germans, 
now or late in the possession of the Moyle family. Pryce 
renders Bake " the beak or stretching out." 

B ALHATCHET. Said from bal, a parcel of tin works ; 
from valas, to dig. Gilbert gives the local name Ballachize, 
but he is probably speaking of Ireland. 


BANDRY. From ban-dre, the high dwelling ; or 6an- 
dreath^ the high gravel. 

ders bara-gwanath wheaten bread ; but the name is rather 
from bar-gwanath, the top of the wheat (field ?). 

BARGUS, BURGUS. From Bargus in Perran 
Arwathal ; from bargus^ the top of the wood. Hals says 
St. Issey was taxed either under the jurisdiction of Polton 
or Burge, now Burgus, i, e. Turris. 

BARICOAT. This name may be from Bary Court, in 
Jacobstow ; from bar-Ucoat^ over the wood. 

BARNICOAT, BARNICOTT. From barna-cot, the barn 

BARSOU. From bar-seu, the black top or summit. 
Pryce gives Bursue as the name of a village. 

BASTARD, found BASTARDE. This name may not 
always refer to illegitimacy ; viz., from bast-ard, base- 
descended. The Cornwall Directory contains as many 
persons of this name as do the London Directories. There is 
indeed a place called Bastard near St. Genny's, the last 
syllable of which may be from arth, ardy high. 

BASWEDNACK. From the manor of Baswedneck, in 
Zennar ; from bos-gwyda-ack, the white house. Pryce 
renders To-wedn-ack, Ty-widn-ick, the white dwelling near 
a port. 

BATH. When of Cornish origin, perhaps from bedh, 
beth, a grove. There is a place called Bath Pool. 

BATHER. Lower renders this name the keeper of a 
bath ; Ferguson, a baptiser ; from A. S. bcezere, bezei^a, 
from bcedf bcetJi, a bath. As a Cornish name, it may be 

B 2 


from bather, bathor, a coiner, banker, exchanger of money ; 
from bdth, a coin. 

Batten, an estate in the parish of North Hill ; from pedn, 
bedUf a hill, head. 

BAUDEN, BAWDEN. Pryce renders Bowden, Baw- 
den, a sorry fellow, bad man, nasty place. There is a 
place called Bawden in Duloe ; and there is Bawdens in 
Gwennap. Vawden, Voaden, and sometimes Bowden and 
Boaden, may be the same name. 

BAWDRY. From bow-dry, the bad or nasty dwelling ; 
but the last syllable may be from dreatk, draith, gravel, 
sand. Baudree was the name of a French Protestant 
family, and would seem to be from Baldric. 

BEANBULK. ¥vom pen-buch, the cow's head (probably 

BEDACK or BESSAKE. From the manor of Bedocke 
or Bessake in Ladoch ; from bez-ack, the birch-tree place 
(bedhoy bezo, a birch-tree). 

BEDDOE, BEDDOW. This name seems to be from 
Bezo, anc. Bedou, in St. Peran Arwithel ; from bedho, bezo, 
a birch-tree. Of. the Welsh name Beddoes, from bedw, a 
birch -tree. 


BELITHO. See Bolitho. 

BEMROSE. Another orthography of Penrose, q. v. 

LACK, BONALLECK (U. S. Bennellick). From Benal- 
leck, in Constantine or Constenton, formerly Banathlek, 
Bennathlick ; from benathal-ick, a place of broom. 


BESSAKE. See Bedack. 

BESWARICE. From hoa-war-icky the house upon the 

BESWETHERICK. From bos-hither-ick, the house by 


the meadow place, or the house in the meadow bj the 
creek. There is however a place in Constantine called 
Boswathick. From Boswetherick we may have by corrup- 
tion Bosmetherick. 

BEVETTO. From ho-vethy the dwelling by the grave ; 
OT^bo-verth, the green-house. Pryce renders Trevetho, in 
Lelant, the town of graves. 

BE WES. From Mab or Ap-Hughes, son of Hughes. 
Cf. the Welsh name Bew, from Ap-hugh. 

BICE. See Bose. 

BICTON. From a manor in St. Eve held by the family 
in Norman times. {Gilbert.) The name, if of Cornish origiu, 
may mean village on the hill, or the little enclosure. 

BIDDICK. From bidn, vidn-icky the meadow place. 
Fiddick, Fidick, Viddicks, are different orthographies of 
the same name. 

BISCOE, BISCOW. From boscrou, the dwelling by 
the cross ; or the same as Pasco, q, v. 

BISSICKS. Most probably from Bissick, near Truro ; 
from bez'icky the place for birch-trees. 

BLAMEY. From blaidh^meZy the wolfs meadow ; or 
pleHi^meZy the parish meadow. 

BLEKENNOCK. " Turris Blekennok ab antiquo prope 
Lastydyall nuper Uugonis Cwtenay" is found in William of 
Worcester's Itinerary. The name may be from pleH-gonocky 
the downy parish ; or from le-gonnocy the downy place. 


BLETSHO. From hleiUtshei, the dwelling of the wolf ; 
or hledzhan, a flower-blossom. A correspondent suggests that 
the name may have been corrupted from that of Bolitho. 

BOADEN. See Bawden. 

BOAS, BOAZ. See Vose. 

BOCARNE. From Bocarne in Bodmin, which Hals 
renders cows, kine, cattle, and white spar-stones, com- 
paratively rocks ! but the name is rather from bo-came, the 
dwelling on or by the rocks ; Boscarne would seem to be 
the same name. 

BOCHYM. "At the time of Domesday (1087) the 
district of Cury or Curye was taxed under the jurisdiction 
of Biichent, now Bochym, i. e. the cow, kine, or cattle 
house or lodge, which place gave name and origin to an old 
family of gentlemen, surnamed de Bochym, temp. Henry VIII., 
who were lords of this manor and barton, till such time as 
John Bochym, tem. Edward VI., entered into actual rebellion 
against that prince. . . . The arms of Bochym 
were. Argent, on a chief Sable, three mullets pierced of the 
Field " (Hals), Prycc also renders the local name Bochim, 
the oxen-house. It may also be derived from bO'Cheim, the 
house on the ridge of the hill or promontory. Cf. Trekein 
in Creed, the dwelling on the ridge, 

BOCONNOCK. From Boconnoc in West hundred. 
Hals says, " For the compound name Boconnoc, it is taken 
from the barton and manor of land still extant there, with 
reference to the beasts that depastured thereon, and signifies 
prosperous, successful, thriving, cows, kine, or cattle" ! Tonkin 
says Bo-con-oke is Gaulish-Saxon, and signifies the town or 
village of Stunt Oke. The nam© is rather from bo-gonocky 
the downy place. 


BOCUNYAN, From Bocunyan, in Helland ; from 
ho-giin^any the house on the down. 

BODANAN. From Bodanan, in St, Teath ; from had- 
Mn-an, the summer dwelling. 

BODCARME. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert in 
a list of. members of Parliament who have represented 
Bodmin. From, bod-cam, the dwelling on the high rock. 

BODCUIKE. From bod^quick, the house by the bay or 


BODDINAR. See Bodinnar. 

BODECASTLE. From Boscastle, near Launceston. 
See Boscastle. 

BODELSGATE. An ancient name. It may come from 
bod-als-coit, the dwelling on a cliff by the wood ; or bod'-alz* 
coit, the dwelling on the woody ascent. 

BODENICK, BODENCK. From Bodenick in Lante- 
glos juxta Fowey, the same as Leland's Bodenek and 
Bodennck. Pryce gives Bo-dinick, the dwelling by the 
river ; but denicky thenick, means hilly ; Cf. Tredenick, 
Trewarthenick, &c. 

BODEWORGY. From Bodeworgy, in St. Columb 
Major ; from bod-wor-gy, the house above the river. (I 
have been favoured with this name, but I am not aware 
whether it is found as a surname.) 

BODGENER. From bod-giin, the dwelling on the 

down. But see Tregenno. 


BODILY, BODILLY. From Bodily Veor (great), or 
Bodilly Vean (little), in the parish of Gwendron, in Kerry er 
hundred ; from hod'egliz, the house by the church. Bod^yhf, 
would signify the house of cure. 


BODINEL, BODINIEL. From an estate in Bodm. 
anciently possessed hj this family ; the first part of the 
name is from bo, hod, a dwelling, and the last part is doubt- 
less that of the owner. C. S. Gilbert writes the name 

bo-din-ardy the dwelling upon the high hill. 

BODKIN. Lower says, **a younger son of the Fitz- 
g«ralds of Desmond and Kildare settled in Connaught in 
the thirteenth century, and obtained, as was not then 
uncommon, a sobriquet which usurped the place of a sur- 
name, and so was handed down. This was Bawdekin, 
probably from his having affected to dress in the costly 
material of silk and tissue of gold, so popular in that age 
under the name of haudkin, (See HalliwelL) The Bod- 
kins still use the * Crom-a-boo ' motto of the Fitzgeralds." 
Ferguson seems to think Bodkin a diminutive from A. S. 
hoda, a messenger. It may also come from body 'kin, which 
would signify a little man ; but the name is possibly of 
Cornish origin ; from bod-kyn, the head abode or house ; or 
hod-keiuy the house on the promontory. 

BODLEAT. From Castle Bodleet, mentioned in William 
of Worcester's Itinerary ; from root of Boleit, q, v. 

BODMAN, BODMIN. From Bodmin in Trigg hundred 
(which Tanner, Not. Monas. writes Bodmin or Bodmanna) ; 
from bod-mtn, the stone dwellings. Tonkin renders Bod- 
min, Bodman, a priest or preacher (bode man). . 

BODMER. From bod-mer, the great house. 

RUGAN, BODRUGON. From Bodrigan or Bodrugan, 
an estate in Gorran, where the family resided temp. 


Edward I. Pryce translates Bodrugan the ** oak downs ** 
{ho'dru'gany bo-dara-gun). Gilbert says, the barton of Bo- 
drig-han or Bod-rig-an, also Botrigan in Goran, gave name 
and original to an old family of gentlemen surnamed 
de Bodrigham or Bodrigan, also Botrigan, who flourished 
here in great fame wealth and reputation for several 
descents ; and in particular there lived Otho de Bodrigan, 
temp. 17 Edward 11. Polwhele renders Boddrugan the 
druid's house (bod-dru-den). Hence perhaps the surname 

BODY. From hod-wy^ the dwelling by the water. This 
name however may sometimes be the same with the Anglo- 
Saxon Boda ; from hoda, 0. N. hodiy a messenger. Qy. the 
names Boddy, Boddey. 

BODYMELL. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert in 
a list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. Qu. 
from bod'7nel, the dwelling of honey ; or bod'Veal, the 
calves' house. There is a place called Bodivial in Crowan. 

BOGER. From bo-geare, the green or flourishlDg 

BOGGAN, BOGGANS, BOGGON. From bo-giln, the 
dwelling on the down. Hence the name Vogan. 

BOGGAS, BOGGIS. From bo^-gasa, the dirty dwelling ; 
or bo-gas, the house of trouble. There is a place called 
Boga in Lanreath. 

BOHAY. See Bowhay. 

BOHELLAND. Perhaps the dwelling of Helland, q. v. ; 
or from bo-hellan, the habitation among the elms. There is 
Bohelland Farm in Gluvias, which has excited much 
curiosity for two centuries as being the scene of a dreadful 
murder related in D. Gilbert, ii. 100. 


From bo'hean, the old house. Hedn also signifies a bay, 
port, or ha^en. 

BOISRAGON. From bos-ar-gun, the dwelling on the 
plain or down. 

BOKELLY. From Bokellj in St. Kew, formerly the d wel- 
ling of the Carnsews ; from bo-kdli/, the house in the grove. 

BOKIDDICK. From a village of the same name in 
Lanivet parish ; from bo-kidiorchy the dwelling of the 
roebuck ; or bo-coid-ick, the house in the woody place. 

BOLAND. See Bolland. 

BOLASE. From bo-glase^ the green dwelling ; or a 
corruption of Borlase, q. v. 

BOLEIT, BOLLEIT. From bo4ait, the milk cot or 
dairy. But see Bolitho. 

BOLIGH. A family that possessed property in Lan- 
salloes. The name is from bo-helUk, the dwelling by the 
willows ; or it may be the same name as Boleit, q, v, 

BOLITHA. Perhaps from Bolotha in Kea ; from root 
of Bolitho, q, v. 

BOLITHO, BOLYTHO. From Bolitho, a hill in 
Crowan ; from bol-tthig, the great belly {i. e. the great hill). 
Polito, PoUitto, Belitho are most probably the same 
name ; and Bolitha may be from the same root. 

BOLLAND, BOLAND. From polan, a pool or standing 
water. Pryce gives BuUand, BuUen, Pollan, clay enclo- 
sure ; nom. fam. {bol-lan). BoUen, Bullun, Pollen, Poland, 
Polund may be the same name, 

BOLLEIT. See Boleit. 

BOLLEN. See Bolland. 

BOLYTHO. See Bolitho. 


BONADY. From hon^uy^ the house of God ; or fton- 
deWy the black dwelling. Hence perhaps the surname 

BONAFORD. From ho^n-vordh, the dwelling on the 
way or road. 

BONALLECK. See Benalleck. 

BONE. From Bone in Madron ; from bo'hdn, the 
summer house. 

BONEALVY. From ho'ti-hdUvy, the house on the hill 
or moor by the river. "It occurs as a local name in an 
abstract from the Augmentation Office relating to the 
Priory of Launceston." D. Gilbert, ii. 430. 

BONETTO. From root of Bonithon, q. v.; or from 
bon-ithtg, the great belly (i. e» the great hill). 

BONIFANT. This name may mean the dwelling at the 
source or fountain (boWt/'font\ or the dwelling in the 
bottom or valley (Armor, font, a bottom). 

Bonithon or Bonythou, now Bonithin, an estate in the 
parish of Cury ; from hoWy-thon, the furzy dwelling. 

BONTHRON. From ho'n-i-tron, the dwelling on the 
promontory or headland. 

BONYTHON. See Bonithon. 

BONYTHORN. A corruption of Bonthron, q. v. 

BORASTON. From hora's-ton, the boar's hill; or 
Bora^s-doUy the hill of Bora. 

BORDEN. From bor-den, the fat, t. e, fruitful, hill. 

BORDENY. From Bordeney Abbey in St. Cleather ; 
from bor-den-y, the fruitful hill by the river. 

BORDINNER. See Bodinnar. 

BORLASE, BORLAS. From Borkse, in the parish of 


St. WeDn ; from hur^gldse, the green summit or top. Hence 
the names Burlas and Bur lace. 

BORMAS. From bor-mas, the fat or fruitful meadow. 

BORTHY (DE). From Borthy, one of the names under 
which S. Enodor was taxed in Domesdaj. ''One Ralph 
de Borthy held in Dinbegh in Pidre, in 3 Henry IV., by the 
tenure of knight service, a small knight's fee." {Carew.) 
The name is from bar-thew, the black bunch or rising 
ground ; or hor-thewyy the rising ground by the water. 
There is a place called Bortho in Crowan. " Berthy is still 
the yoke lands of a manor pertaining to Penrose, now 
Boscawen and others." (Hals,) 

QUETT. From bos-aneou, the house of grief or sorrow. 
Lower suggests that this name is of French origin. He 
says, ''Pierre Bosanquet, of Lunel in Languedoc, at the 
period of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, had seven 
children, two of whom, John and David, sought refuge in 
England, and from the latter the various English branches 
are descended. The name is local, and was formerly 
prefixed with Z)e." This may be so, and still the family 
may have been originally from Cornwall. 

boS'Wern, warne, the house by the alder-tree. 

BOSCASTEL, BOSCASTLE. From Boscastle in 
Lesnewth. " The manor and honour of Bottreaux Castle, 
now called Boscastle, was the chief seat of the baronial 
family of De Bottreaux, until its extinction in the male 
line." (C. S. Gilbert.) But see Botreaux. 

BOSCATHNOE. From bos-codna, the house on the 
neck or promontory. 


estate called Boscaweorose in Barian ; from bO'Sccuven-'rose, 
the house in the yallej of elders. Busscowen would seem 
to be the same name. 

BOSCREEGE, BUSCREEGE. From bos-creeg, the 
dwelling by the creek ; or bos^cryky the dwelling by the 
barrow or hillock. 

BOSCUMB. See Buscomb. 

BOSENCE. From Bosence in St. Earth ; from bo-sents, 
the saints dwelling. 

BOSEUSE. Probably from Bowsawsen. D. Gilbert 
and others render Tresawsen or B.osawsen, in Ferranzabuloe| 
" the house of the Saxon, or the English town or dwelling." 
{Zawsen, olim Sausen and Sawsnecky an Englishman.) 

BOSHER. Lower thinks Bosher may be the same as 
the Norman Bourchier. If of Cornish origin, the name may 
be from vos-hir, the long ditch, entrenchment, wall, or 
fortification. Trevosher or Trevosa is the name of two 
places in St. Petherwin. 

BOSINNEY. From root of Bosithney, q. v. 

From the village of Bosistow, in St. Levan ; from bo^stoc, 
the house near the stock of a tree. 

BOSITHNEY. From Bossiney, Bosithney, Bosythny, 
alias Tintagel ; from bo^sethe, the house in the bishop's see. 
(Sithuey is the name of a parish in Kerrier hundred.) I do 
not find this surname, but have been favoured with it. See 
also Tresithnet. 

BOSKEA. From bos-kea, the enclosed dwelling ; or 
bos-khy the dwelling enclosed with a hedge. 

BOSKEDNAN. From Boskednan, which Borlase 


mentions as one of four circles in Penrith hundred, having 
nineteen stones each ; from bos-cod na, the house hj the 
promontory (codna, neck). 

BOSKENNA. From Boskenna in Burian, which Pryce 
renders the house upon an ascent. Bos-kein would mean 
the dwelling on the ridge of a hill or promontory. 
BOSMETHERICK. See Beswetherick. 
BOSPER. See Vosper. 

BOSAWSEN. D. Gilbert gives the local name 
Tresawsen, alias Bosawsen, in Perranzabuloe ; which he 
renders " the English town or dwelling." 
BOSCARNE. See Bocarne. 

BOSPIDNICK. From hos-pedn-ick^ the house at the 
head of the creek (ick) ; or fropi Baswedneck or Boswed- 
nack ; the dwelling of St. Wednack or Wynnock. Cf. 
the local name Laiidewednack, signifying the church of 
St. Wednack. Pryce however renders the local name 
Towednack, Tywidnick, the white roof, white dwelling 
near a port. 
BOSSAVERNE. See Bosavern. 
BOSSISTOW. See Bosisto. 

BOSSOWSACK. From Bossawsack in Constenton ; 
from boS'Saivsackf the healthy dwelling ; or perhaps rather 
from ho-sawsneck, the dwelling of the Englishman. 
BOSUSTO. See Bosisto. 

wathick in Constantino ; from bos-warth'tck, the house or 
dwelling in the high place. 
BOSVEAL. See Busveal. 

BOSVIGO. From Bosvigo in Kenwyn ; from bos-gutky 
the dwelling in a bay or creek. 


BOSWARTHA. From hos-warth, the high house ; or 
boS'Wartha, the higher house. There is a place called 
Boswarthen in Madron. 

BOSWARTHICK. See Bosvarthick. 

BOSWARVA. From Boswarva in Madron ; from 
bos-wavas, the winterly dwelling ; from gudv, gwaf, winter, 

BOSWAYDEL. From Boswaydel or Boswidle (in 
Ladock), which Tonkin renders " a house in an open place, 
or one easy to be seen." But the name means rather " the 
house in the woody place " (W. gwyddle). 

BOSWELLICK. From the manor of Boswellick, which 
Tonkin translates " the house by the mill river " (hos-meU 

BOTADON. From hod-din, the dwelling on the fortified 
hill, or on the steep hill. 

BOTALLACK. From Botallock in St. Just, near 
Penzance ; from bo-tall-ack, -ick, -ock, the highly situated 

BOTHERAS. From bod-thres, the barren dwelling. 

BOTTRELL. Lower says William de Botreux held great 
possessions in Cornwall temp. Henry I., the chief of which 
was Botreux's Castle ; by contraction, Boscastle ; and that 
the family were Norman, and doubtless came fi'om Les 
Bottereaux, near Evreux. Others derive the name from 
bo'treaux, the castle on the sea, or the castle on the water. 
As a Cornish-French compound (bod-ar-eaux), the name 
would translate " the dwelling upon the waters." Botterell, 
Bottrall, Bottrell, and Botterill, may be the same name, or 
from the same root. 


BOUNDY. See Bonadt. 

BOWDEN. See Bawden. 

BOWHAY, BOHAY. From ho-hay, the enclosed 
dwelling. Cf« the local names Bowijack, Bowithiek, and 

BllABYN. From bray-bighan^ the little hill. There is 
a place called Brabins in Lanreath. 

BRAIMER, BRAMER. From hray-mer, the great 

BRANNELL. From the manor of Brannel (St. 
Stephen's) in Powder, which Tonkin considers to be the 
Bernel of Domesday. Whitaker says ** the name Bernel, 
Beranel, Brannel speaks its royal relationship at once ; 
hrenhin or hrennin in Welsh being a king ; brennyn, brein^ 
brtnn in Cornish royal ; Bran being the Welsh name for 
the famous Brenhind, and consequently brennol in Cornish 
signifying kingly or royal." The name however may be 
the same with the O. G. name Bernal. 

BRAY, BREE. Some families of this name are from an 
estate in the parish of St. Just, near Penzance. Hals says, 
** Bray gave name and origin to an old family of gentlemen 
surnamed De Bray, who held in this place two parts of a 
knight's fee of land, 3 Henry lY. I take the Lord Bray 
of Hampshire to be descended from this family." Pryce 
gives Bray^ Bre^ Brta^ the hill; nom. fam.; and De Braye 
and Bree are doubtless the same name. Bray is the appel* 
lation of places in Alternun and Morval ; and there is 
Brea in Illogan, and Bray's Tenement in Laiidulph. 

BREEN. From hryn^ a hill. Preen may be the same 

BRENDON, BRENTON. From an estate in St. 


Dominick possessed bj the family in earlj times ; from 
bran-don, crow's hill. Hals mentions a Henry Brenton of 
St. Wenn, weaver, who died temp. George I., 103 years of 

BRICE. See Prick. 

BROCKHILL. From brock-hill, badger's hill. Pryce 
gives " Brockhill, Brocks, Brocka, badger's hill. Nom. 
fam." There is a place called Brockel in South Pether- 

BRODRIGAN. See Bodregan. 

BROS, BROWSE, BRUSH. From brds, great, hodie 
braos, brawse. 

BRYDON. From bry-don, the clay hill. "Brydon, 
Prydon, clay hill. Nom, fam,^^ (Pryce.) Cf. Prye. 

BUCKTHOUGHT. From buch-tor, the cows' hill. 

BUDOCK, BUDOK. From Budock in Kerrier hun- 
dred, in Domesday Bowidoc ; according to Hals, " from 
bud^ a bay, cove, creek, haven, or inlet of waters; and oak, 
according to the ancient natural circumstances of the 
place." Pryce renders Budock, Bythick, oak haven; or 
the border or skirt of the harbour. Budocus was the name 
of a saint. 

BULLAND, BULLEN. See Bolland. 

BULUVANT. This name has been derived from 
Norm, hel enfant^ fine child, like Bellamy from bel amy; 
but BuUivant and Pillivant are possibly from PoUaphant in 
Alternun ; or Pollyfont, Pollifont in Lewannick j or Poly- 
funt. Poly vant in Trewen parish, which Hals renders, •* the 
top spring or fountain of water, called from some spring of 
water that rises in some high lands of that tenement ;" but 
the name rather means the head of the spring (pol-y-font). 



BULLUN. See Bolland. 

BURG AN. From bur-gan, the top of the down. 

BURGESS. From berges^ burgee^ a citizen, townsman ; 
a Cornish form of the Fr. bourgeois, 

BURGUS. See Bargus. 

BURLACE, BURLAS. See Borlasb. 

coomb f the dwelling in the vallej. 

BUSCREEGE. See Boscreege. 

BUSSCOWEN. See Boscawan. 

BUSVARGUS. From Busvargus in^St. Just; from 
buS'VaV'gUsy the house or dwelling on the top of the wood. 

in Gwennap ; from bus^veal, the calves' house. 

BUZZA, From bod-zdh, the dry dwelling ; or bod-sau, 
the healthy abode. 


CALL. Hals derives this name from the Cornish* 
British call, cal, any hard, flinty, or obdurate matter or 
thing (probably from the character of the soil of the estate 
of the first owner). The Cornish cal also signifies cunning, 
sly. Lower suggests that Call may be from the Scotch 
name MacCall. 

CALLARD. This name may be from Calartha, in 
Morvah ; from cala-arth, the hard or difficult height. 

borne, a town and parish in Penwith hundred, which Hals 
renders " a crooked or arched burne or well." Pryce trans* 


lates Cambourne, Cambron, crooked well or crooked hill 
{cam'bourne^ cam^hron), 

CARAH. See Care. 

CARAHATES. See Carhates. 

CARBALLA. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert in 
a list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. From 
car'bal^ the naked rock, or the rock by the tin-works. 
There is a place named Carbellj in Blisland, and a Car- 
bella in Cardinham. D. Gilbert gives a Robert Fitzhamon, 
Earl of Carbill. 

CARBERY, CARBERRY. When not of Irish origin 
from car-vre\ the rocky hill. 


CARBIS. From Carbis in Leland, or Carbus (now 
Carvis) in Roche ; from car-bus, the dwelling on the rock. 
(Pryce renders Carbis, Carbos, Carbus, rocky wood ; house 
or castle of stone.) Hence no doubt Cerbis, and according 
to some. Carbines and Carbinis ; but the two latter names 
may be from car-ennis, the rocky island or peninsula. Cara- 
bine and Carbone are found as surnames in the United 

CARBURRA. A name mentioned by C. 8. Gilbert in 
a list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. It may 
be from car-bar, the town on the top or summit. Bor is fat, 
D. Gilbert says the manor of Carborro or Carburrow in 
Warleggon has been for a considerable time in the family of 
Arscott Bickford, Esq., of Deansland, in Devonshire. But 
see Carbery. 

CARBYON. From car-bean, the little castle. 

CARDINHAM {pron, cardinim). From Cardinham, a 
township in Bodmin Union ; or Cardinham in Crowan. 

c 2 


Some translate the name, the rock-man's house ; but it is 
rather from car-Dinham^ the rock or dwelling of Dinham. 
Cardinham was in fact at one time the residence of Lord 
Dinham. Cf. Tredinham. 

CARCLEW. From Carclew, anc. Crucglew and Cruc- 
gleu, a bai'ton in Mjlor in Kerrier, which Tonkin thinks 
may come from "cruc-clew, the enclosure of barrows 
or by barrows, of which there are several in the adjoin- 
ing commons " Qu. : from cryk-gleu, gleWy the moist, 
wet, or stiff barrow. Corclew would seem to be the same 

CARDELL. From car-doly the stony vale. 

CARDEW. See Carthew. 

CARE, CARR. From car, a rock, or caer, a city, town, 
fortified place, castle. Hence the names Carah and Carrah. 
There was a Peter de Cara Villa. 

CAREW, CAREY. A family said to be descended from 
Gerald de Carrio. According to some Carey is another form 
of this name, which circ. 1300 was spelt De Carru. Indeed 
the Carews of the West of England pronounce their name 
Cary. Some say the ancient family of Cary derived its 
name from the manor of Cary or Kari (as it is called in 
Domesday), in the parish of St. Giles-on-the-Heath, near 
Launceston. Carew Castle is near Mil ford Haven. Carew 
says his family was denominated from one Carrow or Kar* 
row that came into England with the Conqueror. Hals 
says the arms of the Carrows and Carews are the same. 
He suggests some absurd etymologies of the name. It 
has been derived from carau, a stag, pi. carew ; caer-'eau^ 
a Cornish-French compound, would translate the castle 
on the water, and chy-ar-^aUy the house on the water. It 


may also be from car, a rock. Carrew, Carrey, and Carry 
are perhaps the same name. 

KERGECK, KERGEEK. From car-qutk, the rocky vil- 
lage ; or car-key^ ke, the stone hedge ; or perhaps even from 
car-kiey kei, the dog's rock. 

CARGENWEN. See Curgenwen. 

renders Carhayes *' the enclosed castle." 

CARHART. From Carhart in St. Breock ; from car- 
artk, the high rock or fortress, or the rocky height. Hence, 
by corruption, Crahart ; and, by contraction, Crart. 

CARINTHEN. From carn-ithen^ eithin, the furzy rock ; 
or from Carnarthen in Illogan ; from cani-aHA-6», the lofty 
rock. But see also Carnedon. 

CARKEEK, CARKEET. See Cargeege. 

called Carlyon or Curlyghon near Truro, for a long time in 
the possession of the family. There is still a place called 
Carlyon (D. Gilbert, Carlian) in Kea. The name may be 
from car-lagen, the rock or dwelling by the pond or pool. 
Hals thinks "the family of Cur-Lyon, by its name and 
arms, were descendants of Richard Curlyon, alias King 
Richard I." ! ! ! 

From Carminow, a manor and barton in the parish of St. 
Mawgan in Meueage ; from car-minow, the little rock. 
There is a place named Carminnow in Gunwalloe. 

CARNA. See Carnb. 

CARNALL. See Carnell. 


CARNBAL. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert in a 
list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. From 
cam-bal, which will translate the naked or poor town, or 
the town by the tin-works. See also Cabballa. 

CARNE, KARN (Carna ?). From cam, came, kam, a 
shelf in the sea, a heap of rocks. There is Carne in 
Verian ; and Carn is the name of places in Morvah, Lante- 
glos by Fowey, and in Crowan. 

CARNEDON. From the barton of Carnedon in St. 
Stephen's, near Launceston ; from came-dun, the rocky 
hill. Tonkin gives the manor of Carnedon Prior, "the 
rocky hill," probably the Domesday Carneten, in Linkin- 

CARNELL, CARNALL. From Carnhell in Gwinear ; 
from carm-hel, -hale, the rocky river, or the rocky moor. 

CARNESEW, CARNSEW. The original name of this 
family was Thoms. They took the name of Carnsew from 
Carnsew in the parish of Mabe, from cam-sew, zew, the 
black rock, Kearnzew would seem to be a variation of the 

CARR, CARRAH. See Care. 


GARRICK. From carrick, garrtck, a rock. 

See Carew. 

CARTHEW. From Carthew in St. Issey, or Carthew 
in Madron ; from cat^-thew, dew, the black rock. The family 
were celebrated in the county, temp. Edw. 11. Cardew is 
the same name, but may be a different family. 

CARVALL, CARVILL. From car-val, the rocky wall 
or fence ; or car-uhal, the high rock. 


CARVATH, CARVETH. From Carvath in St. Aus- 
tell, or Carvath in Cuby ; from car-vethy the citj grave, 
or castle burying-place. 

CARVER. From car^veovy the great rock. 

CARVERTH. From Carverth in Mabe; which Hals 
renders " rock-strength ; or from ear-veth, rock -grave ;' 
and he says, "those gentlemen, from living at Carveth or 
Carverth in Mabe, were transnominated from Thorns to 
Carverth." The name seems to be from car-verthy the 
green town. Hence the U. S. name Cravarth. Cf. Carvath. 

CARVETH. See Carvath. 

CARVILL. See Carvall. 

CARVOLTH. From Carvolth in Crowan, probably the 
same as Carvolghe or Corvaghe, a manor in the parish of 
Morvah, which may mean the dwelling with the little wall 
{vtlgigy dim. of vol, gual, a wall). 

Carvowsa in Ludgvan, or Carvis in Roche ; from car-vosCy 
a rock or castle intrenched by a ditch ; or, as Pryce renders 
it, " the intrenched castle." 

CARWITHEN. From Carwithenick in Constantine; 
from car-wytheu'icky the castle in the woody place. 

CARY. See Carew. 

CARYHAYES. See Carhates. 

CASABOM, CASEBOUME. From easa-bron, the 
dirty hill. Cf. the local name Lambron, Lamborn. 


CAUTHERN. From coiulioamy the wood containing 

CAVAL. See Kivell. 

CAVALL. "Who out of a supposed allusion to this 


name, as appears from the glass windows of this house, gave 
a calf for their arms, viz.. Argent, a calf passant. Gules ; 
whereas lengh is a calf in British-Cornish, and cavall is a 
beehive, cradle, or flashet." {Hals.) The name is from 
root of Kivell, q. v. 

CAWETH. From Caweth in Mabe ; a probable con- 
traction of Carvath, Carveth, or Carverth, q, v. The 
original name of the family was Thomas. 

CAWBSE. From cors, a place full of wood, a den, a 
bog. It would also corrupt from Caws, q, v. ; also Coode. 

CAWS, CAWSE. See Coode. 

Kennick or Kenrick Cove, in St. Keverne ; from gun-tckf 
the down or common by the creek. Lower derives the sur- 
name Chinnock from Chinnock, the appellation of three 
parishes co. Somerset ; and under Snooks, which is a known 
corruption of Sevenoaks, he says, Sevenoke, the early ortho- 
graphy of the town, has also been modified to Sinnock, Cennick. 

CERBIS. See Carbis. 

CHALLAW. See Chellew. 

CHARKE, CHURKE. From Chork in the township 
and parish of Lanivet, a corruption of corack, a rock. 

CHAWN. See Chown. 

CHEGIN. See Chegwidden. 

WYN. This name is said to mean the white dog (kei-gwin), 
and the arms of the family are three greyhounds Argent. 
It is more probably from ke-gwdyriy the white hedge ; or 
kea^gwdyriy the white enclosure ; or perhaps rather from cht/- 


gwdyn, the white house. D. Gilbert, under Perranzabuloe, 
says, " That as the miners impute the discovery of tin to 
St. Perran, so they ascribe its reduction from the ore, in a 
large way, to an imaginary personage, Saint Chiwidden ; 
but chuwadden is the white house, and must therefore 
mean a smelting or blowing house, where the black ore of 
tin is converted into a white metal." There is a place called 
Kegwyn St. Just in Constantine. 

CHEGWIDDER. From chy-gueidhur, the workman's 
house ; or the same as Chegwiddeu, q. v. 

CHEGWIN. See Chegwidden. 

CHELLEW, CHELLO W. From Chellew in Ludgvan ; 
from car-lu, the rock or castle-place ; car-leu, lion castle or 
town ; or car-loo, the rocky pool. Hence the surnames 
Challaw, Cherlew. 


CHENHALLS, CHEYNALLS. From chy'n-als, the 
house on the cliff. See also Chtnbalb. 

CHENNELL. See Chtnhale. 

CHENOWETH. See Chtnowbth. 

CHERLEW. See Chellew. 

CHEVERTON. See Chiverton. 

CHEYNALLS. See Chenhalls. 

CHIGWEDDEN. See Chegwidden. 

CHINOWETH, See Chynoweth. 

CHIRGWIN. See Curgenven. 


VARTON, CHI WARTON. From Chiverton in Perranza- 
buloe ; from chy'ver-ton, the house on the green lay ; or 
chi-uar-ton, the house upon the hill. Others translate 


ChivartoD, the greon castle on the hill, or a castle with a 
green field under it, "which latter," says Scawen, "may 
be well thought on as to the name in Cornish, tho' in the 
heraldry it had been more complete." 


CHOWN, CHOWNE, or CHONE. This family is 
said to be from Castle Chiowne, Chioune, ChuD, or Choon, 
which some interpret a " house in a croft." I take it to 
be the same name as Chywoon in Morvah, or Perran 
Arwarthal ; from chy-woon, the house on the down or 
common. There was a Thomas Chounens or Chowne ; 
and Chowen, Chawn, Chunn would seem to be the same 

CHUNN. See Chown. 

CHURKE. See Charke. 

CHYGWYN. See Chegwidden. 

CHYNHALE, CHENHALL. From chy'n^hale, chy'n- 
hdl, the house on the moor. (There is Chenhall in Maw- 
nan.) Chemhal and Chennell would seem to be the same 
name. See also Chenhalls. 

CHENOWETH. One of the most ancient families in the 
county. From Chynoweth in Cubert ; from chy'iioweth^ 
the new house. There is or was a place named Chynoweth 
in St. Earth, whence another family derived its name. 

CLAMO. See Clemow. 

CLEATHER. From St. Cleather in Lesnewth hundred. 
Hals says, " For the name of St. Cleather, it refers to the 
vicar of the church, and in Cornish signifies a sacred or 
holy fencer or gladiator ; a person that exercises a spiritual 
sword for offence or defence in a holy manner ; and as in 


this place bj the holy fencer is to be understood the vicar, so 
by his word is signified t^v [jiac^aptxy rou ifyeui^aros 6*a^L pijjxa 
Oeou, gladium Spiritiis, quod est yerbum Dei, t. e. the sword 
of the Spirit, which is the word of God." The local name 
is more probably from ledr, ledra, a cliff, a steep hilL 

CLEGG. From cleggo^ a rock, cliff; clegar, id. Hence 
Clegar in St. Agnes, and Cleggo in Gorran, 


CLYMO. From the baptismal name Clement. Hence the 
local name Climsland, s. e, Clemma's Land, in East hun- 

CLENICK, CLINICK. From Clennick in Broadoak 
parish ; from lyn-ick, the dwelling by the water. 

CLENSO, CLENSOE. See Colenso. 

CLIMO. See Clemow. 

CLINICK. See Clenick. 

CLYMA, CLYMO. See Clemow. 

CLOAK, CLOAKE, CLOKE. From root of Clogg or 
Clegg, q. V. 

CLOEN. From Clown in the township and parish of 
Boconnoc in West hundred ; from clogwyriy a steep rock. 

CLOGG. From clog, a steep rock. 

CLOKE. See Cloak. 

COAD. See Coodb. (There is Coad's Green in North 

COAT, COATH, CODE. See Coode. 

COLBURN. This name may sometimes be from Col- 
born, which Pryce renders " the dry well." CoUhorn would 
translate the holy well. 


CLENSOE. The last part of these names would seem to 
be the same with that of Boskenso in Mawnan, and, if so, 
they may be from col-enys^ the island ridge, Colenso, &c., 
are however more probably Cornish forms of Collins, a name 
derived from Nicholas. 

COLQUITE. From Colquite in Lanteglos by Fowey ; 
from kil'Coidf the neck of the wood. Pryce renders Col- 
quite (anc. Kilcoid, &c.), the neck of the wood, or the dry 

COMBELLACK, CUMBELLAC. From com-vallack, 
the fenced or walled valley. 

MERFORD. From Comfort in Gwennap ; from cwm-ror, 
the great valley. Polwhele renders Corn-fort, Coomb-fordy 
Cwm-fordh, Cuum-vordhy Cum-vory the great road or pass 
between the hills. 

COMMON. From com-mogariy the great valley. 
CONDOR, CONDURA, or CUNDOR ; in Latin Con- 
dorus or Condurus, Earl of Cornwall at the time of the 
Norman Conquest. From Conor or Condura in St. Cle- 
ments, which D. Gilbert renders the king's or prince's 
water. Pryce with more reason translates Condurra, 
Condourra, the neck of water {eon-dower). See also 

CONGDON. From Congdon in South Petherwin. 
(There is Congdon Shop in North Hill.) From conna-deuy 
the neck or promontory on the hill. 

CONNOCK, CONOCK. « The name Conock or Con- 
nock signifies rich, prosperous, thriving, successful, of which 
name and family those in Cornwall are descended from the 


Conocks of Wiltshire ; the first of the tribe in those parts 
was a Mr. Conock, who, temp. Elizabeth, came to Leskeard, 
a tanner, and laid the foundation of his estate, as Mr. 
Thomas Rivers of Liskeard informed me." {Gilbert, quoting 

CONNOR, CONOR. As Cornish surnames, said to be 
from Connor, rage. D. Gilbert, speaking of St. Clements, 
says, "In this church town is the well-known place of Conor, 
Condura ; id est, the king or prince's water (viz., Cornwall), 
whose royalty is still over the same, and whose lands cover 
comparatively the whole parish ; from which place in all 
probability was denominated Cundor or Condor, in Lat. 
Condorus, i. e, Condura, Earl of Cornwall at the time of 
the Norman Conquest, who perhaps lived or was born here. 
And moreover the inhabitants of this church town and its 
neighbourhood will tell you, by tradition from age to age, 
that here once dwelt a great lord and lady called Condura." 
But see Condor. 

CONNORTON. See Connor. 

CONOCK. See Connock. 

CONOR. See Connor. 

COODE. From coid, var. coit, cos, coys, cuit, cus (pi. 
cosaws, cosawes), god,goda, goed, goose, gosse, g-ds, gUtz , govi/tk, 
gyth, wyth, quit, quite, a wood. Hence the surnames Cause, 
Causse, Caws, Cawse, Coad, Coat, Coath, Code, Cood, Coot, 
Coote, Cowd, Coose, Cooze (Cossa ?), Cuss, Groad, Goate, 
Good, Goose, Goosey, Gooze, Goozee, Goss, Gosse. 

COOM. From root of Coumbe, q, v. 

COOSE. From Coose in Creed, from root of Coode, 
q. V. 

COOT, COOZE. See Coodb. 


COPP. As a Cornish name, from coppa, the top or 

CORCLEW. See Carclew. 

COREN, CORIN. "John Coren, Esq., derived from 
the Corens of St. Stephens in Branwell, and gave for his 
arms, Arg. a millrind between two martlets in fess. Sab." 
{Tonkin.) The name seems to be from cor-an^ the dwarf. 
Cf. the W. covy little, a dwarf ; coren^ cores, a female 

CORITON. See Cobyton. 

CORLYER. From car-luar, the garden on the rock. 

CORNOW. Sec Curnow. 

CORY. See Curt. 

CORYTON, CORITON. C. S. Gilbert derives the 
name Coryton from an estate in Lifton, co. Devon, pos- 
sessed bj the family as early at least as 1242 ; but the 
reverse may be the fact, for the ancient name of Cury in 
Kerrier was Curytowne or Cury ton. See Curt. 

COSBEY. See Cosway. 

COSOWARTH. See Coswarth. 

COSSA. See Coode. 

COSWARTH, COSOWARTH. From Coswarth or 
Cosowarth in Calan (in Pider hundred), where the 
family flourished till temp. Henry YIH. Hals translates 
Coswarth or Cosowai'th the far-off or remote wood ; but 
the name is rather from cos-warth, the high wood. Hence 
the surnames Cosworth and Cuswath. 

COSWAY, COSBEY. From Coosvea^ Coozvean ; from 
coose^vean, the little wood. 

COSWORTH. See Coswarth. 

COSWYN (De). From Coswin, in the parish of Gwi- 


near, where the family flourished for several descents, till 
John Coswjn, temp. Chas. II., having wasted the paternal 
estate, sold the barton. The name is from cos-gwdyn^ the 
white wood ; or cos-vean^ the little wood. 

COTEHELE (De). From Cotehele or Cathill in Cal- 
stock ; from cut-hill, coit-hayle, the wood on the river. 
'' CuthiU was the most ancient seat of the knightly family 
of Edgecombes in Cornwall. It came into that family by 
the marriage of Hilaria, daughter and heir of William de 
Cotehele, with William de Edgecombe in the reign of 

Edw. in." 

COUMBE, COOM. From coom, cumm, a valley. There 
is the village of Combe, formerly Coumbe, in Morwin- 
stow, and Combe Keale in Egloskerry ; and places named 
Coombe in Duloe, Kea, and Landrake. 

COVER. See Gover. 

CO WD. See Coodr. 

COWLSTOCK. From Calstock in East hundred ; from 
cal'Stoc, hard rock. 

as the Welsh Caradoc (Latinized Caractacus) ; from cara- 
dawgy abounding with love {carad, loving ; Corn, car, a 
friend). There was a Cradock, Earl of Cornwall. 


CRAHART. See Carhart. 

CRAISE. See Craze. 

CRAKE. See Crego. 

CRANE. From Crane in Camborne ; from grean, gravel ; 
or croan, the cross. Hals says, " Crane adjoining Roswarne 
gave name to its possessor, Cit-Crane, who gave bustards or 
cranes for his arms ; for as crana, krana, is as grua in Latin, 


80 it is a crane in English, garan and cryhyr in the 

CRART. See Carhart. 

CRASHDOOR. From castle-door or kestle-dour, the 
castle near the water. Others translate the name ^*on the 

CRAVARTH. See Carverth. 

CRAZE, CRAISE. From Cherease, Cht/rease, which Pol- 
whele renders " the middle house " (probably chy-creis), 
Creia, creiz, signifies also force, strength ; and cres is peace, 
quiet, rest. 

CREAGH, CREAK. See Crego. 

CREBA. From crif, strong ; or greah, crib, a comb ; 
perhaps used locallj to signify a ridge (crib, a comb of a 
cock, or any bird : hence, the rocks called Crebs in many 
places, for that they appear like the comb of a cock at low 
water, &c. Fryce), 

CREBER, CREBOR, CREPER. From crib-ber, the 
short ridge ; crib-ver, the great riJge ; or crib-per, the bare 
rock. Ber also means a gentle eminence. There is a 
Wheal Crebor. But see Creba. 


CREGAN, CREGEEN, CRIGAN. From creeg^an, 
the creek ; or cryk-an, the barrow. 

CREGO, CREGOE. From Crego, an estate in St. 
Cubye or Tregony ; from creeg, a creek ; or cryk, a barrow 
or tumulus. Hence perhaps Crago, Cragoe, Crage, Craggs, 
Crake, Creak, Creeke, Creech, Creagh. 

CREPER. See Creber. 

CRIGAN. See Cregan. 



Cracket-ton, Croggan-ton, a place where are shells (crogm, 
a shell, pi. hregyn) ; but these surnames are rather from 
crow-gon, the cross on the down. 

CROKE, CROOK. From crug, cruCy cryk, a barrow, 

CROOME. A family that held the barton of Trelevan 
in Mevagissey. From croum, croom, krunij crooked (W. 
croniy crwin). The Croomes are said to have been originally 
from Wales. 

CROW, CROWE. From crmL^ crow, a cross. 

CROWGEY. From Crowgy in Constantino, or Crowgy 
in Gwennap ; from crou-key the cross by the hedge. The 
last syllable might also be from gy^ a brook, or c%, a house. 

CRUDGE. From cruCy a buttock, a barrow ; or from 
crouy a cross. 

CUER. From cuevy cur (L. curia)y a court; or gueVy 
green, lively, flourishing ; whence Geare, the name of 
several places in this county. 

CUMBELLAC. See Combellaok. 

CUNDOR. See Condor. 


(commonly written Cargenwen). From car^gwynn, the 
white rock or castle. Hence perhaps, by corruption, the 
surname Chirgwin. 

CURLYON. See Carlian. 

CURNOE, CURNOW. These names mean high rocks 
or shelves in the sea ; properly, says Pryce, a heap of 
rocks, a rocky place (carnoUy pi. of cam, came). Hence 
also Cornow and Kernow ; but the latter is also the 
Cornish for Cornwall. 



CURRY, CURY, CORY. From Cury or Curye, a 
parish in Kerrier Hundred, found written Curytowne and 
Curyton ; from crou-dun, the hill with the cross ; or crou' 
todn, the cross in the green meadow. 

CUSDEN, CUSDIN. From caBa-den, the dirty valley. 

CUSS. See Coode. 

CUSWATH. See Coswarth. 

CUTTELL, CUTTILL. If Cornish names, from root 
of Cotehele, q. v. 


DAGr, DAGG-E. The surname Dag has been derived 
from Teut. dceg, day. The Dags of Cornwall may have their 
name from Cornish dag^ '* some one " — perhaps some one of 
importance, from Gr. raryog, a leader, comminder, a chief, 
a ruler (Thessalian tagus), D. Gilbert says, "Killi- 
gaueen in St. Feock, after Mr. Hussey's decease, passed 
into the hands of Mr. Dagge : two brothers of that 
name went to London from Bodmin to seek their fortunes ; 
one of whom became the manager of Co vent Garden 
Theatre ; the other pursued the law, to which both were 
probably educated, and ultimately retired to Killiganeen, 
which has since become the property of Admiral Spry." 
Dagworthy is a surname. 


DALPHIN. See Godolphin. 

DELL. From dol^ a valley, dale. 

DENHAM. See Tredenham. 

DENNIS, DINNIS. From dinaZy dinas, a bulwark. 


fortress, city, walled towu. The name may, however, some- 
times be from the parish of St. Denis in Powdre, so called 
from St. Denis or Dionysius, to whom its church was dedi- 

DENSILL, DENSELL, DENZIL. From an estate in 
the parish of Mawgan in Pyder, possessed by the family 
down to the 16th century. The name is from den-ail, the 
hill in open view or prospect ; or den-si/l, the hill of the 
sun. Hals gives an absurd etymology. See Gilbert. 

DERRICK. This name is said to be sometimes from 
Cornish derrick, a sexton, a gravedigger ; from terhi, to 
break ; or doer, the earth, as belonging to the earth. It is 
perhaps more often the nickname for Theodoric, a name of 
Teutonic origin. 

DEVIS. From davas, anc. davat, a sheep. Pryce gives 
" Devis, Davas, Davat, sheep place. — Nom. fam. Davis, a 

DINHAM. See Tredenham and Cardinha^. 

DINNIS. See Dennis. 

DOGGET, DOGGETT. Mr. Ferguson makes Doggett 
a diminutive of the Icelandic dogge, Eng. dog. Lower 
seems to think it corrupted from Dowgate, one of the 
Roman gateways of the city of Londt)n. Dogget however 
may .be an abbreviation of Pendoggett, a village in St 
Kew ; from pen^ower-gate, the head of the gate or opening 
to the water. 

DOLBEN. From dol-highan, the little vale ; or dol-ben, 
the head of the valley, or the head vaHey; 


DOLPHIN. See Godolphin. 

DORMAR, DORMER. From dour-mer^ the great water. 

D 2 


DOWER. This surname may be from Dower in Crowan 
(there is Dower Park in St. Kew), named from some pool 
or standing water {dour^ water). The Prompt. Parv. ren- 
ders the word dower, a rabbit's burrow, cuniculus, 

DOWERINGE. From dower-ick, the watery place. 
Hence perhaps the surnames Dowrige and Dowrick. Cf. 


DOWICK. From dow-ick, probably for dower-ick^ the 
place by the water. Dew-ick would signify the dark place. 

DOWRICK, DOWRIGE. See Doweringe. 

DRAIN. See Trehane. 

DREADON. From dre-don, the dwelling on the hill ; 
or dreath-doTiy the hill of gravel or sand. 

DRIGG. See Trigg. 

DUG GAR. From dew -car, the black rock ; or Du'Car, 
God's rock. 

DUGGUA. From dew-gwy, the dark stream. 

DULASTON. From dow-glas-ton, the hill by the green 

DUNCALF. From dun-calf, the bald or bare hill. 

DUNDAGELL. Hals, citing Carew's Survey of Corn- 
wall, p. 44, says," Dundagell (alias Dyndagell, alia^ Bosith- 
ney) gave name and original to an old family of gentlemen 
surnamed De Dundagell, now extinct, of which family was 
Robert de Dundagell, who, temp. Rich. I., held in this 
county, by the tenure of knight service, five knight's fees." 
He says also that the name Dundagell means safe, secure, 
or impregnable fort or fortress ; and Dyndagell safe, secure, 
impregnable, or invincible man ; or a man so fortified, mag- 
nified, or fenced by art or nature that he was not liable to 
hurt or danger, referring perhaps to the King or Earl of 


CoKiwall, whose fort or castle it was " ! In Domesday, 
20 Wm. I. (1087), this place was taxed under the name of 
Dune-cheine. Tonkin sajs " tin is the same as e^tn, dinaSf 
dixethy deceit ; so that Tindixeth, turned for the easier pro- 
nunciation to Tintagel, Dindagel, or Daundagel, signifies 
the Castle of Deceit, which name might be aptly given to 
it from the famous deceit practised here by Titer Pendragon, 
by the help of Merlin's enchantment." Pryce renders 
" Tintagell (now Tintagel), the modern name of Dunda- 
gell, Dundagel, the castle of deceit (tiuy dtn, a fortified 
place or castle)." 

DUNGAY, DUNGEY. From dun-ke, the hill enclosed 
by a hedge or fence ; or dun-keay the hedge enclosure. 
Tungay may be the same name. 


EDYFYN. This name may mean the little bottom or val- 
ley {izy-vean) ; or the valley of stones (yyiriy vyyn, pi. of 
maenj a stone) ; or, as the earliest orthography is said to 
have been Edyfyn, it would translate " the spring in the val- 
ley " [izy-fyn). It would also corrupt from a French form of 

ELLARY, ELLERY. Perhaps from the manor of 
Elerky (found Elerchy, in Domesday Elerchi) in Veryan ; 
from elerch'Chy^ the swan's house. Lower makes Ellery a 
corruption of Hilary. 

EL WIN. From Hallwyn in St. Issey ; or the manor of 


Halwyn in Perranzabuloe ; from hdUwyn, the white moor or 
hill. The name Elwin may however be derived from the 
old Teutouic name Alwyn (whence Allen), from al-wtn,. 
mighty conqueror ; or from the name Adalwin, from adal'^ 
win, noble conqueror. 

ENDEAN, INDEAN. From hean-dean^ an old man ; 
or perhaps rather from hedn-diuy the old fortified hill. 
Pryce translates the local name Tregandean, the men's 
dwelling {den^ the men). 

ENNES, ENNIS, ENNYS, ENYS. From an estate 
in Cornwall still possessed by the family, to whom it be- 
longed temp. Edw. III. {Lower.) From ennis^ ynes^ ynez^ 
an island, peninsula. Hence perhaps sometimes Ince and 

ERISEY, ERISY, anc. written ERISIE. From the 
manor and barton of Erisey in Grade, or the barton of 
Erisey or Herisey in Ruan Major. The name Erisey, says 
D. Gilbert, has been extinct about a century. Pryce trans- 
lates Erisey, the dry acre ; Pare Erisey, the dry field. In 
another place he renders Park Erissie, Parc-Erisy, the corn 
field, or dry acre on the bottom. Eri^ erw^ is a field, acre ; 
and aeyh is dry. • 

EUREN. From voren, strange, foreign ; also a knave, 
scoundrel, jade. 

EVA. From the parish of St. Ewe, var. Hewa, Hevh, 
and Eva, in Powdre hundred, named from St. Eva, the fem. 
of St. Ivo or Ivonis, i. e. St. John (the Baptist) ; from the 
Greek Iwayvrjs, 



FALMOUTH. From the town of the same name ; from 
Fal-mouth, mouth of the Fal, called the Prince's river. 

FAULL. The Cornish form of Paull. There is Tre- 
faul in Lanreath ; and Paul, Paull are found as surnames 
in Cornwall. Hence Faulls. 

FAZAN, FAZON. See Pheasant. 

FELLENOWETH. See Vellenoweth. 

FENTON, YENTON, VENTOM. From fenton, ven- 
ton, a spring, fountain, well. There is Fenton in Ladock, 
and there are several names compounded of venton. But 
the Fentons are not always from Cornwall. There are 
parishes and places called Fenton (perhaps " the fenny en- 
closure or town ") in cos. Lincoln, Stafford, and York. 

FENTONGOLLAN (De). From Fenton-gollan, Venton- 
gollan, " which," says Hals, " was and is the soke^ lands of 
a considerable manor, which heretofore comprehended the 
whole parishes of St. Michael Penkevil and Merther, ex- 
cept the tenements of Penkevill, Tregothnan, &c. &c., 
now subdivided into the manors of Tregothnan and Fenton- 
gollan." The name means the holy well. 

FESANT. See Pheasant. 

FICE. SeeVosE. 

FIDDIAN. See Mithian. 

FIDDICK, FIDICK. See Biddiok. 

FINTER. See Wintoub. 

FITHIAN. See Mithian. 

FOOT, FOOTE. As a Cornish name, perhaps from 


foute, a lane. Samuel Foote, the comedian, who was a 
native of Truro, changed his name from Foot to Foote 
upon settling in London. 

FORD. As a Cornish name, perhaps from Ford in 
Lanhydroch ; from fordy a way. 

FORDER. From Forder in Trematon ; from vor-dour, 
the way (over the) water ; or veor-dour, the great water. 

FOS. See Vose. 

FOSS. From Foss in Duloe ; from root of Vose, q. v. 

FRADD. From prdz, a meadow. See Praed. 

FRATHAN. There is the village of Fraddon in St. 
Enodoc, but this name is most probably corrupted from 
Trathan, q. v. 



FREEBODY. See Trewbodt. 

FREMEWAN. See Tremewan. 

FREWARTHA. See Trewartha. 

FRIDGE. From /ry, fridge^ a promontory ; literally a 

FRIGGEN, FRIGGENS. Perhaps the same as Frig- 
nis, mentioned in a visitation of 9 Oct. 1620 as one of the 
burgesses of Truro ; but these names may also be from frt/- 
gwyriy the white hill or promontory. 

FUDGE, FUGE, FUGO. Fuge is from foge, a blowing, 
house ; from fok^ a hearth, furnace, fire-place. Hence pro- 
bably the names Fugo and Fudge. 

FURSE, FURZE. From fors, vors, for ford, a way. 
There is a place called Furze Park in Lansalloes. 



GALGEY. This name may be from Galgeath in Car- 
dinham ; from goUkeay the holy enclosure, or cala-kea, the 
hard enclosure. 

GARE. See Gear. 

GARRANCE. From guarhaz, garhaz, the summit or 
top. There is Garras in Kenwyn, and Garras in St. Allen, 
which Pryce renders, " on the top of the hill." 

GARTARELL, GARTRELL. From car-Terrelly Ter- 
rell's rock. 

is said to mean " twenty goats " (igans, twenty). It is the 
same as Gauerigan, from gavar-y-gan, " the goats' downs." 
Gauerygan, Gavergan, Gavrigan, Gawrigan, and Govrigon 
are different forms of the same name. The arms of Ga- 
Tergan are a goat. 

GAYER. The same as Gear, q. v. Lower thinks Gayer 
the Gare of the Wiltshire Domesday. 

GEACH, GEAKE. See Quick. 

GEAR. There is an estate named Gear in the parish 
of St. Earth, which Polwhele thinks may have had its 
name from caer^ castrum ; and he says Gear Bridge below 
was originally Caer Bridge. Geare in Cornish signifies 
"green or flourishing." There are places called Tregear 
and Tregeare ; and Tregare is mentioned by Hals under 
Gerans. Hence the names Gayer, Geer, Geere, and Gare. 

GEDDEY, GEDY. See Giddy. 


GEDGE. See Quick. 

GEER, GEERE. See Geab. 

GERNIGAN. From carn-tganSy twenty rocks. The 
Dame would also translate the little rock. There is a place 
called Gurnick in Crowan. 

GERRANS. From a parish of the same name in Corn- 
wall. From root of Garrance, g. v, 

GERRESH. From some local name. Tonkin says, 
" adjoining to the barton of Gwerick in St. Allen is a 
tenement called the Gerras, that is, the summit or top, 
from its high situation, which I notice in this place on 
account of its lead mines." From root of Garrance or Ger- 
rans, q. v. 

GEVERS. Qu. from gavar, a goat. 

GEW. Pryce renders gew, the stay, support ; and says, 
on many estates (especially in the west) one of the best 
fields is called the Gew, probably from its being the support 
of the estate. There is a place called Gew in Crowan. 

GIDDY, GIDEY. Giddy is an ancient Cornish family, 
formerly written Gedy, Geddey, Gidey, &c. " Possibly a 
nurse name of Gideon." (Lower,) 

GILLY. From gilli/y gelli/, kelli, a grove. There is a 
place called Gilly in Mawgan, in Meneage. 

GIST. From gest, gyst, a dog, properly a bitch. Hence 
the name Keast. Cf. the Irish names compounded of cu, 
con, a dog, used with sense cf hero. 

GLASS. From glaze^ glase, green. Glas is the Cornish 
for a country. 

GLASSON, GLAZON. From glaz-on, glaz-ta, the 
green downs. 

GLAZE. From glaze^ glase, green. Carglaze (the green 


rock) is the name of a tin mine in St. Austell. Cf. Pol- 

GLAZON. See Glasson. 

GLENCROSS. From glen-crotts, the cross in the dale. 

GLISSAN. From^Ma-aw, the green (place). See Trb- 


GLUAS, GLUGAS, GLUYAS. From glew^glas, the 
moist or wet country; or from the parish of Gluvias in 
Kerrier hundred, named after the saint to whom the church 
was dedicated. Hals ahsurdlj derives the parochial name 
from glewas, to hear. 

GLYN, GLYNN. From Glin, Glynn, in the parish of 
Cardinham, where the family flourished for many genera- 
tions ; from gli/riy a woody valley. 

GOAD, GOATE. See Coode. 

DOLPHIN. Carew derives Godolphin from two Cornish 
words signifying " white eagle." Scawen says, " Godol- 
phin in keeping still displayed abroad the white eagle, 
from the Cornish gothlugon" A correspondent of Notes 
and Queries observes, " It seems highly improbable that 
Carew should have given the explanation * white eagle' 
without some grounds of apparent probability. First, the 
Cornish form of the name is Godolghan, Godolcan, or 
Godalcan : the last syllable may be can, white ; godol or 
gedol may have been a Welsh or Cornish word unknown to 
the dictionaries signifying ^ eagle ' (probably as a descrip- 
tive epithet, etymologically combatant), even though we 
have no other voucher than Carew himself. That such a 
word, whatever the meaning, existed in Welsh, we may 
learn from the name of Gors-y^Oedol in Merioneth. Gilbert 


seems to have imagined English elements in this Cornish 
name. But, although it is possible Carew may be right in 
his division and interpretation of the name, there is another 
explanation to be found, I believe, in Camden. Godalcan 
is rendered * wood of tin,' as though it were a wood in 
which there are tin mines (god, imitation of coit, a wood ; 
alcariy tin) ; but while I believe that alcan is an element in 
the name, the first syllable seems to me to be from cody^ to 
raise — a place where tin is raised. I believe Carew to be 
quite right as to what the several parts of the Cornish 
name might mean, though wrong in so dividing the word 
and applying them to this particular example ; while Gil- 
bert is quite astray." Gilbert says in a note, " Godolanec 
in the Phoenician is a place of tin." The editor of Notes 
and Queries observes, " The editors of the Queens of 
Society had probably read the following note in Burke's 
Dictionary of Peerages, p. 223 : — * Godolphin, in Cornish, 
signifies a white eagle, which was always borne in the arms 
of this family.' Burke, no doubt, obtained this fanciful 
meaning of the word from Carew's Survey of Cornwall, 
p. 149, ed. 1811, where it is stated that Godolfin alias 
Godolghan signifies the white eagle — than which (says D, 
Gilbert) nothing can be more untrue, for in all these com- 
pound words there is not one particle or syllable relating 
thereto, or any other of the British language whatsoever ; 
for wen erew, wen eryr, wen eriew, and by contraction wen^er, 
is a white eagle in the Welsh, Little-Britannic, and Cornish 
tongues. (See Dr. Davis's British Lexicon, and Floyd upon 
Aquila.) As for the modern name Good-ol-phin, God-ol- 
fyn, it admits of no other etymology or construction than 
that it was a place that was altogether a wood, fountain. 


well, or spring of water, or altogether God's fountain or 
spring of water. Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, i. 119, 
120." N. & Q., 3rd S. iii. 448. Lower (on the authority 
of C. S. Gilbert's Cornwall, i. 520) says, " Godolphin, a 
manor in the parish of Breage, near Helston, anciently 
written Godolghan, a word which is said to signify in the 
Cornish * the white eagle,' whence the * eagle displayed 
with two necks argent,' in the armorial shield. John 
de Godolphin is said to have possessed the manor at the time 
of the Conquest." Pryce translates Godolphin " the little 
valley of springs " {jgo, little ; doly valley ; phin or fince^ of 
springs). This would seem to be a more reasonable ety- 
mology, but I am inclined to think godol may be simply an 
intense form of dol, and that the name was perhaps 
originally Dolvean, the little valley ; or Dolfyn^ the spring 
in the valley. Godolcan may indeed be another name 
altogether. I find in Leland's Itinerary (D. Gilbert, iv. 
267), "From Mr. Godolcan to Pembro, wher the parish 

chirch is (i. e. appertains) to Mr. Godolcan 

From Mr. Godolcan to Lanante a four miles. No greater 
tynne workes yn al Cornwall then be on Sir Wylliam Godal- 
can's ground." The surnames Dolphin, Dalphin, may be 
etymologically connected with that of Godolphin. 

GOGAY. From go-guy, the little stream ; go-cht/y the 
ittle house ; or go-kea, the little enclosure. 

GOMMO. See Gumb. 

See CooDE. 

GOSS, GOSSE. As Cornish names, from root of 

Coode, q. v. 

GOVE. From gof, gove, a smith of any kind. 


GOVERIGON. See Gauerigan. 

GOVER. From gover (go-ver), the brook or spring of 
water; (W. gofer, a rivulet); hence perhaps Cover. 

GOYNE,GOYNS, GOYNES. Fromrootof Gunn, g.v. 
There is Goynglaze in St. Agnes. 

GREW. From grew, a crane. Cf. Killigrew, Petti- 

GRILLS, GRYLLS. A friend renders this surname a 
grasshopper or cricket (grillus, grylluSy a cricket ; in later 
times perhaps used to designate a locust). But the name is 
rather from the manor of Grylls or Garles, in Lesneweth, 
near the rocks called the Grylls or Garles. Hence the sur- 
name Gryllo. 

GROWDEN, GROWDON. From grou-den, the hill of 
sand or gravel ; or crou-den, the hill of the cross. 

GRUNDRY. See Gundbt. 

GRYLLO. See Grills. 

GUAVAS, GUAVIS. See Gwavis. 

from guimpy gump, down hill (in W. ar guympo). There is 
a place called Gump in St. Agnes ; and the village of Jump 
in Roborough hundred, co. Devon. Cf. the names Kumpe, 

GUNDRY, GRUNDRY. From gun-drCy the town on 
the down or plain ; or gUcii-di^aith, the down by the seashore. 
' There is in Mawgan in Meneage a place called Gwandray. 
These names may however be the same as Gundred (whence 
St. Gundred's Well in Roche), a German name ; from 
gund'drautf faithful or beloved woman. 

GUNN. As a Cornish name, from gun, goon, a down or 
common, a plain. 


GWAIRNICK, GWARNACK. Hals says, « Gwarn-ike 
(in St. Allen), t. e, lake, river, or leate, summons, notice, 
or warning, so called from Owarnike Castle, a treble in- 
trenchment or fortification lately extant on the woody 
lands thereof, is the voke lands of the manor and barton of 
Gwarnike, the old inheritance and dwellinge of the once 
rich and famous family of the Bevils for many generations"! 
Tonkin : '^ Partly in this parish is the great lordship of 
Gwairnick, id esty the Hay river ; a name not unsuitable 
to the circumstances of the place, for a pleasant river 
passeth through most fertile meadows beneath the house." 
Leland writes the local name Gwernak. Pryce renders 
guernick ** marshy, moorish, hence Guamick or Gwarnick 
in St. Allen, &c." There is a place called Gwnarick in 
Kenwyn, and Gurnick in Crowan. 

Guavas or Gwavas in Sithney. The name means a 
winterly place, from gudv, givcif, winter. Hence the names 
Wavis, Wavish. 

G WE NAP. From the parish of Gwennap or Gwenap, 
which was dedicated to St. Wenep. Pryce renders Gwenap 
white son or white face {gwen-ap). 

GWERICK. From guSr-ick, which will translate both 
the green or flourishing place and the green brook. 

GWIATOR, GWIHTOR. Henry Gwihtor or Gwiator 
occurs in a muster-book for Redruth in 1600. The name 
is from guythor^ an artificer, workman ; gueidhury a workman ; 
gueidwur^ a workman in silver ; also a brazier, tinker. 
Hence perhaps the surnames Gwyther, Wadder, Wetter, 



WHIDDEN, WIDDEN. From gwyn, gvoydn, widn, white. 
See also Winn. 
GWYTHER. See Gwiator. 


HALE, HAILE. From hdl, hale, a moor ; hdl, a hill ; 
or hail, bountiful, great, also a river that falls into the sea. 
There is a place called Hale in Broadvale parish ; and 
Hale is the name of a seaport and town in Penwith hundred. 

HALLAMORE, HALLIMORE. From hdl-veor, the 
great hill ; or hale-veor, the great moor. 

HALLOWS. Lower derives this name from the parish 
of Hallow, CO. Worcester ; but it may sometimes be from 
Halle w, in Roche, Cornwall ; from hallow, the moors. 

HALS. From Als, formerly the name of a place in 
Burian ; from als, a high cliff. (Price gives als, the sea- 
shore or cliff ; als, alt, an ascent.) Hals says, " From Als, 
now Alse and Alsce, viz. lands towards or upon the sea- 
coast, was denominated John de Als, or from Bar-Als-ton 
in Devon, temp. Hen. I., and King Stephen, ancestor of the 

De Alses, formerly of Lelant, now Halses 

This family in Edward HI.'s days rote their surname de Als, 
now Halse. (See Prince's Worthies of Devon upon Hals.) " 
Halsey may be the same name. 

HALVOSE. From Halvose in Manaccan ; from hdl- 
vose, the moor ditch. 

HAMBLYN. See Hamlet. 

HAMELIN. As a Cornish name from hay'inelyn, the 


green enclosure ; hdUmelyn^ the green hill ; or hdl-mellin, 
the mill moor ; Hamlin may sometimes be the same name. 

HAMELYE, HAMLEY. " Hamley of Halwyn, now 
of St. Columb and Bodmin, whose surname has been written 
Hamelye, Hamlyn, and Hamblyn, is of great antiquity in 
Cornwall, where it appears to have been seated before the 
Norman Conquest." (C S. Gilbert.) Lower thinks that the 
name, which he rightly considers the same as Hamlyn, is 
the Anglo-Norman, Hammeline. If of Cornish origin, it 
may come from hdl-mellin, the mill moor. But see Hamelin. 

HAMLIN, HAMLYN. See Hamlet. 

HANDER. See Hekder. 

HAND R A. See Hendra. 

HARLYN (De). From Harlyn ; from ar-lyuy upon the 
pool, water, or river. 

HAWEISH. There is Hewas in Ladock, and Hewas 
Water in Creed. Tonkin gives a Matilda de Hewish, 
who held half of a small fee in Manely in St. Veep, temp. 
3 Hen. IV. C. S. Gilbert mentions Hewis as a surname, 
and says the early residence of the family was at Hewis, in 
Hartland hundred, Devon, whence it removed to Tremoderet 
in Duloe. 

HAY, HAYE. As Cornish names, from Aay, hey^ an 
enclosure or a churchyard. There are places named Hay 
in Ladock, Quethiock, and St. Breock. 

HELBREN. From hdUhren, the woody hill. 

HELIGAN, formerly De Haligan. From helygan, 
the willows. The manor of Heligan in St. Ewe was 
anciently the inheritance of the Whitleighs of Efford in 
Devonshire. Hals writes the name of the hamlet Hal- 
liggon ; and Tonkin, Heligon. Cf. Haligan in St. Maben. 



HELLAND. From the parish of Helland in Trigg 
hundred. Hals says the name refers to the church, and 
signifies the hall, college, temple, or church. Tonkin says 
hel and hele are Cornish pronunciations of the Eng. kall^ 
atrium, and that this word was applied to churches as well 
as gentlemens houses in various parts of England ; as 
Helldon Rectory in Norfolk : Hailing, Kent, &c. ; but that 
according to the parishioners the name is a contraction of 
Helen's Land, the church being dedicated to St. Helena, 
mother of Constantine. I derive the name from hellariy 
ellan, the elms ; or from hal-land, hdl-lauy the moor enclosure. 

HELLER. See Helyar. 

HELLMAN. From hel-maen, the stony hill ; or Ml- 
maeriy the stony moor. 


HELSDON. From the parish of Helstone or Helston; 
from hal'laS'toUf the hill by a green moor. 

hellier, helwar, a huntsman. 

HEMPEL. From hedn-pol, the old pool ; or the old 
head or promontory ; or the head of the bay, port, or 

HENDER. Lower says the name Hender was originally 
spelt Hondo wer, and that the Hondo wers are said to have 
originated in Wales ; that the elder branch became extinct 
about temp. Hen. VIII., but that younger branches, who had 
abbreviated the name to Hender, were living near Camels- 
ford a few years since. The name in both Welsh and 
Cornish might translate " old water " (W. hen-dwr; Corn. 
hedn-dower). Hinder and Hender are perhaps the same 
name. But see Hendra. 


HENDIN. From hen-din, the old fortified hill. 

HENDRA, HANDRA. From Hendra, name of places 
in Kenwyn, St. Dennis, and Mawgan in Meneage ; or from 
Hendre in Madron ; from hen-dre^ -dra^ the old town ; or 
from Hendora in Cury ; from hedn-^ur, the old water. 

HENDY. From hen-ty, the old house. 

HENNA. From hen, hedn^ old ; or a Cornish form of 
Hen, for Henry. 

HENNOR. From hen^oar, the old earth or land ; or 
hen-aire {arth\ the old head or promontory. 

HENWOOD. From hedn-coed, the old wood. There is 
a place named Henwood in Linkinhorne. 

HEXT. (Found written Hexte and Hex.) This name 
may be from hext, used by Chaucer for " highest ;" A. S. 
Jiexta ; G. hochst, compar. of hocfi, high. Hexte is found 
as a German name. It may also be of Cornish origin, for 
Tonkin derives Hexworthy, the name of a barton in Lan- 
whitton or Lawhitton, from hesk, hesken, a reed or bulrush ; 
and Hext may be derived from a plural^ perhaps heskydd, 

HINDER. See Hender. 

HINDOM. From hen-don, the old hill. 

are Hingston Downs in Callington ; Hen-gas-don would 
signify the old dirty hill ; but these names may also be 
derived from the parish of Hinxton, co. Cambridge ; perhaps 
from Hingest's town. 

KINS. From Park-Hoskin, the park of rushes. 

ish forms of Otto, gen. Ottonis, for Ottavio, L. Octavius. 
Hence Eutin, a town of N. Germany, cap. princip. Liibeck. 

E 2 


Lower suggests that the surnames Hotten, Hotton may be 
from Hoton, co. Leicester ; or Hoton-Pagnel, co. York. 

HOTTON, HOYTEN. See Hottan. 

HUGOE. A Cornish form of Hugo, t. e. Hugh, from 
D. hoog, great. There is a place in Keor called Hugos. 

HURDON. From Hurden in Alternun. Qu. from hir^ 
don, the long hill. 

HUTH. From huthy high, also loud, delusion, fasci- 
nation ; sometimes for cuth, sorrow, grief. Lower thinks 
the surname Huthwaite is from Husthwaite, a parish in York- 

HUTHNANCE. From huth-nance, the high valley, the 
valley of delusion, or the valley of sorrow or grief (huth 
for cuth). 


IDLESS (De). " From Edles or Ideless, i. e. narrow 
breadth (in Kenwyn), formerly the voke lands of a con- 
siderable manor, was denominated a family of gentlemen 
surnamed De Idless, whose heir was married to Hamley, 
temp. Edw. IIL" {Hals.) This etymology, which would 
seem to be from ydn narrow, les broad, is hardly reasonable, 
and the name may be connected with that of St. Ide, a 
manor mentioned by D. Gilbert under St. Issey. Ide-less 
would signify the court or hall of Ide. 

INGE, INCH. See Ennes. 

INDEAN. See Endean. 



jago, gagoy in Sco. and Ir. signifies an island, and he refers 
to Floyd's Sco.-Ir. Diet. These names are rather Cornish 
forms of James. Cf. the Sp. lago. Hence the surnames 
Jaca, Jacka. 

JEWEL, JEWELL. From yuhal, high, tall, lofty ; or 
from Hewell, a dim. of Hugh. Lower thinks Jewell cor- 
rupted from the Fr. Jules, u e, Julius. The name of the 
family of Jew that inherited the manor of Trerice in New- 
lin is probably corrupted from Hugh. 

JOSE. A Cornish form of Joseph. 


KALINKISS. From gilly-kus^ the wood or grove of 

KALYNACK. See Keltnack. 

KANDLE. Perhaps the same name as Kendall, q, v. 

KARKEEK. See Cargbbge. 

KARN. See Carnb. 

KARRAMORE. From car^veor, the great rock. 

KARROW. See Carew. 

KASTELL. See Kestle. 

KAYMERLLMARTH. This name is mentioned by 
C. S. Gilbert as a surname, temp. Eliz., in a '^ list of the 


members who have served in parliament for Bossiney since 
the time of Edw. VI." It may be from chy 'marl-mart h^ 
the wonderful or high dwelling of marl ; or the same as 
the local name Kilmar, Kilmarh, Kilmarth, whicli Prjce 
renders, ** the great, the horse, or the wonderful grove." 

KEAM. From cheim^ the ridge of a hill ; a promon- 

KEARNZEW. See Carnsew. 

KEAST. See Gist. 

KEAT, KEATE, KEED, KEET. Hals says keate, 
ceate, signifies in British fallacy, cheat, or delusion ; but 
these names, as well as Keyte, Kite, are more probably from 
cot (W. cwt), a cot, sty ; or from root of Coode, q. v. 

KEEVIL. See Kivell. 

KEGERTHEN. From he-gerthen, the quickset hedge. 

KEIR. When a Cornish name, from car, a rock. 


KELLAN. This name may be from ke-lan, the church 
or place enclosed with a hedge. See also Kelland. 

KELLAND. From Kelland in Trigg hundred, perhaps 
etymologically connected with Helland ; or the same name 
as Kellan, q. v. Kil is a neck or promontory, and kelin a 

KELLEY. See Kelly. 

KELLIGREW. See Killigrbw. 

KELLY, KELLEY. As Cornish names, from kelly, 
kelliy the grove. 

the same name and family; from Kelliow, in Cor nelly; 
from killioWy the groves. 


KELLOCK. From killy-oke^ the oak grove ; or ih'%- 
och^ the grove place. 

KELLOW. From Kellow in Lansalloes ; from killiow^ 
the groves. 

KELLYOW. See Kellio. 

KELSEY. From Kilsey or Kelsey in Cubert ; from 
htl'Zeh, the dry neck of land. Kelsey is however the appel- 
lation of two parishes co. Lincoln. 

KELYNACK, KALYNACK. From kelynn-eck, a place 
where holly-trees grow (kelin^ a holly-tree). This name is 
rendered famous by Mary Kalynack, who, at the age of 84, 
walked from the Land's End to London to see the Great 
Exhibition, and to pay her respects personally to the Lord 
Mayor and Lady Mayoress. But see Killignock. 

KEMBER. See Kimber. 

KEMELL. See Kymyell. 

KENDALL. The general opinion seems to be that this 
family is of different origin from that of the Kendalls of 
Westmoreland, whose name is derived from Kirby-in- 
Kendale, i. e. the church dwelling (Jcirk-hy) in Kent-dale. 
Hals says, " Kendall signifies to see or behold the dale or 
valley ; otherwise Kendall or Cendall is fine linen ; and 
Cendale may be a corruption of Pendall, «. e, the head of 
the valley." The name may mean the house in the valley 
{chy^n'd6l\ or the neck of the dale (conna-dol). Hence 
perhaps Kendal and Kendle. 

KERAKOSSE. From car-kus, the rocky wood. 

KERGECK, KERGEEK. See Cargeege. 

KERKIN. From car-^wyn, the white rock. 

KERNICK. From Kernick in St. Stephen's, or Kernick 
in Helland ; from camtcky rocky; or carn'icky the rocky place. 



KERWAN. From car-ban, the high rock, or the rocky 
hill ; or car-vean, the little rock or castle. 

KESKEYES. From chy-akez, the house in the shady 
place. Pryce renders Skewys in Cury " the shady 

Kestle in Ladock, or Kestle Wartha in Manaccan ; said to 
have been named from a British camp or fortification for- 
merly upon the lands, or near the sea-coast ; .from kastal^ 
kestelly a fort or castle. The arms of this family are Ar- 
gent, three falcons Proper ; also Or, three castles turreted, 
Gules. There are other places in Cornwall with the ad- 
junct Kestell, and the surnames Kastell and Kistle are ety- 
mologically the same name. 

KEVEAR. From ke-veor^ the great hedge ; or kea-veor, 
the great enclosure. 

KEVEREL. From keverel, ckeverel, a kid or little 
goat. Scawen translates Keverel, " a he-goat or he-goats, 
that creature taking most delight, as it is observed, in the 
cliffs thereabout." 

KEVERN, KEVERNE. Hals says of the local name 
St. Keverne, "as for the modern name, whether it be derived 
from the Sax. geferon, geforan, geuorany synonymous words, 
signifying a fraternity, seers, equals, fellows, inspectors, 
with reference to the six, eight, or twelve men of this ' 
parish who, as body politic, corporation, or fraternity, 
govern the same in joint or equal manner ; or from the 
Brit, keveren, as schism, separation, or division in church 
matters or religion (see Lluyd upon Schisma) ; or from 
Kieran, a famous bishop among the Britons about the fifth 


century, who perhaps was horn in this place; and is the 
.tutelar guardian and patron of this church ; and to him also 
is dedicated St. Kieran rectory, in decanatu Chrlstianitatis 
in Exeter; of which every man may think as he please"! 
There wtts, it seems, a St. Keven, Kevern, or Keverne. 
The name however may be from ke-voran, -voren, the 
foreigner's hedge or enclosure. Hence the name Kivern. 

KEYMER. From root of Kyvebe, q. v, 

KEYTE. See Keat. 

KILGAT. See Killigabth. 

KILLEGREW. See Killigbew. 

KILLICK. From killy-ich, the grove place. 

KILLIGARTH (by corruption KILGAT). From an 
estate in Talland, which was in possession of the family up 
to the time of Henry VI. ; from kelli-arth^ the high grove. 
The last part of the name may also be from garz, a hedge. 

KILLIGNOCK (De). From Killignock (found Checke- 
nock) in St. Wenn, " where this family flourished in good 
fame for many generations till temp. Hen. VIII." This 
name may be from kelli-cnoCy the hill in the grove. Keled^ 
nack, kalonky is valiant, stout ; kaloneky hearty ; colannaky 
courageous, stout, hearty ; from coUmy the heart. But see 

VUS). From a manor in the parish of St. Erme, where 
this celebrated family resided from an early date down to 
the reign of Rich. II. ; from kelli-^rew, the crane's grove 
(Pryce says eagle's grove). The arms of the family are a 
spread eagle. 

KILTER. A family that may have given name to Kil- 


ters in Eea. D. Gilbert mentions Kilter in St. Keverne as 
the birthplace of, and as probably belonging to, the Kilter 
family. The name may come from kil^our, the neck of 
land or promontory by the water, 

KILVERT, From killy-verth, the whitethorn grove. 
KILWARBY. From ktl-war-vy, the grove upon (i. c. 
by) the water. There was a Robert Kilwarby, archbishop 
of Canterbury, temp. Wm. I. 

Kimber ; from kthn-bery the little valley, defile, or pass. 
Kum-ver would mean the great valley. 

KINGDON (KINGDOM ?). A family which has flou- 
rished in Cornwall and Devon for some centuries. The 
name would appear to have been borrowed from Kingdon, 
an estate near Sharrow, in the former county. {Lower,) 
Doubtless the same name as Congdon, q, v, 
KISTLE. See Kestlb. 
KITE. See Keat. 

KITTO, KITTOW. Cornish forms of Kit, for 

KIVELL, CHIVELL, CHIVEL. From kevel, a horse. 
Keevil, Caval, and Cavall would seem to be the same name. 
Cf. Nankivel and Penkevil. 
KIVERN. See Kevern. 

KNAVA or NAVA. Hals gives the British words nave, 
nava, nawe, knawe, and he seems to* think the name may 
have meant "a servant, steward, ambassador, minister, or 
messenger of God, Christ, his king, prince, or other master," 
and he says, *^ it is a name of office of one that is a substi- 
tute or viceregent, and acts under another." Cf. the A. S. 
cnapa, cnafa (Plat. D. knaap, G. knabe), a boy, young man. 


" John Knava^ of Godolphin, Esq., was struck sheriff of 
Cornwall by Hen. Vn. in 1504." (Hals.) 

KNIVER. From kein-veor, the great ridge or promon- 
tory {kein for cheim), 

KNIVET, KNYVETT. Found written Knyvet, De 
Knyvet, Knivat, Knevett, De Knevet. Ferguson con- 
siders the name Knevett a diminutive of Cniva, an early 
Gothic name. Camden, with more reason, thinks Knyvett 
a corruption of Dunevit ( Dunheved). Borlase is of opinion 
that the ancient Cornish local name Dunheved (near Laun- 
ceston) is a Saxon compound, signifying " the head of the 
hill." According to Baxter, Dunevet is the same as Nemeto- 
tacium (properly, as in Ravennas, Nemetomagum), in which 
Br. Willis agrees, Nemet in Cornish being pronounced Nevet, 
and dun substituted for maguSj for pagus, a town or village; 
further that dun-huedh signifies in Cornish " the swelling 
hill," but dun-hedh " the long hill ;" from which latter cir- 
cumstance he imagines it was called Lanceestre and Lan- 

KUMPE. See Gumb. 

KYMBER. See Kimber. 

KYMYEL. From a place in the parish of Paul, 
anciently the residence of the family. See Ktmtell. 

KYMYELL or KEMELL. From Kymyell in St. 
Buryan ; from kum-yuhaly the high valley ; or k^m-yoult the 
devil's valley. KAm-mel, -meal would signify the vale of 
honey. Kymyel is probably the same name. 

KYVERE. From chy-veor^ the great house. 



LAIT. See Laitt. 

LAITY, From Laity in Lelant ; from lait-ty, the dairy 
or milk-house. Hence perhaps the names Leuty, Lait, 
and Late. Laity is found as a French name. 

LAMBADARN. From lan-Badarn, the church of St. 
Badarn, t. c. St. Paternus. There are several places in 
Wales named Llanbadarn. 

LAMBILLION. From lau'velin, the mill place ; or Ian- 
vylgauy the place of the seaman. Cf. Trevelyan. But see 

LAMBORN. See Lambron. 

LAMBREY. A probable corruption of Lambrick, q. v. 
It may however be from lan-bry, the church hill, or the 
hill enclosure. 

LAMBRICK, From Lambrigan, a corruption of Lam- 
bourne- Wigan in Perranzabuloe ; from lan^wigaUy the little 

LAMBRON, LAMBORN. From Lambourn, in old 
deeds Lan Bron, an estate in the parish of Perranzabuloe ; 
from laH'bron^ the hill enclosure. There is a place called 
Lambourne in Ruan Lanihorne. 

Lamellion, an estate in the parish of Lantegloss, near 
Fowey, anciently the seat of the family ; from lan-melliny 
the mill place. Pryce gives Lanmellion, Lan Mellin, the 
mill place. 

LAMPECK. See Lampbnc. 


LAMPEER. From laU'Ver, the great enclosure. 

LAMPEN. See Lampenc. 

LAMPENC. From the manor of Lampenc ; from lan- 
Pennocky the church of Pennock. Lampen and Lampeck are 
possibly the same name. 

LANER. From Laner or Lanher in St. Allen, which 
Hals renders " tempter." He says, ** At the time of the 
Norman Conquest this district of St. Allen was taxed 
under the jurisdiction of Laner or Lanher, t. e. tempter ; so 
called for that long before that time was extant upon that 
place a chapel or temple dedicated to God in the name of 
St. Martin of Tours, the memory of which is still preserved 
in the names of St. Martin's fields and woods, heretofore per- 
haps the endowments of that chape] or temple, &c. 8cc." But 
as Lanher, according to Hals, was formerly a wood, may not 
the name be derived from lanherch, a forest, a grove ? In- 
deed Pryce writes the name Lannar, and suggests that it 
may be so derived. There is Lannarth in Gwennap, Lanner 
in Kea, and Laneer in Lansalloes. Laner Castle occurs in 
William of Worcester's Itinerary, and D. Gilbert mentions 
one Lannar {q. v.) who was connected with the Chynoweth 
family. See D. Gilbert, 111, 125. 

LANCE, LAUNCE. From Ian, a church ; or perhaps 
rather from nans, a valley. Cf. the local name Lansladron 
or Lanhadron, for Nansladron. 

LANDARY. See Landrbt. 

LANDEG. Perhaps from Landege, found Landegey, 
Landegge, Landigge, and Landigay, the former name of 
Kea ; from lan-teage, the fair church. 

LANDER. In Cornwall and Devon the man stationed 
at the mouth of the shaft of a mine to receive the kibble or 


bucket is called the lander ; but this name maj be from Ian* 
dour, the church near the water; or lan-dar, the church 
oak. Lander was the name of the celebrated African tra- 
vellers, natives of Truro, one of whom discovered the 
course of the Niger. 

LANDEW. From Landew in Lezant ; God's enclosure, 
or the churchyard, the sanctuary (Zan-Di^e, Dew) ; or from 
Ian-dew, the black enclosure or church. 

LANDREY, LANDRY. From lan-dre, the church 
dwelling ; lan-drea, the principal church ; or lan-dreath, 
-draitk, the church on the sand or sandy shore. Hence 
perhaps Landary and Laundry. 

LANDSWORTH. For Nansworth ; from nans-worth, the 
high valley. Cf. the local name Lansladron, for Nansladron. 

LANDZELLE. From Launcells parish; so called, ac- 
cording to Tonkin, from being a cell to the abbey of Hart- 
land in Devonshire (Ian, an enclosure or church). 

LANFEAR. Lower refers this name to Lanphear, 
which Arthur derives from Gael, lann-fear, a pikeman. 
The name is found in Cornwall, and may be derived from 
locality ; from lan-veor, the great church. 

LANGAN, LANIGAN. Lan-igans would signify 
twenty churches ; but see Langon, Lanton. 

LANGDON. There are families of this name from 
parishes in Essex, Kent, &c. The Langdons of Cornwall 
ai*e from Laugdon, " long hill," in the parish of Jacobstow, 
their ancient patrimony. 

LANGFORD. The Cornish family of this name derives 
from Roger de Langford, sheriff of Cornwall in 1255, who 
took his surname from his estate of Langford, in the parish 
of Marham Church. (C S, Gilbert) The name is probably 


from lau'vordh, the great enclosure ; or lau'/ord^ the charch 
way. Other families of this name are from parishes in cos. 
Bedford, Berks, Norfolk, Essex, Somerset, Notts, Wilts, 
&c. ; but their name signifies " long ford.'* 

LANGHAIRNE. See Lanhekne. 

LANGHERNE. To this family belonged the gigantic 
Gromwellian soldier, John Langherne, who is said to have 
been seven feet six inches in height, and proportionately 
active and strong. (C7. S. Gilbert,) The same name as Lan- 
herne, q. v. 

LANGON. From lan^gon, the dwelling on the down, or 
from root of Lanyon, q. v. 

LANHADERN, LANHEDRAR. From the manor of 
Lanhadarn, var. Lanhaddame, Lanhadden, Lansladarne, in 
St. Eve, which Hals renders " the thieves or robbers* 
place {lan-lader). Pryce however says, " Lanhadron, 
Lansladron, rect^ Nansladron, the valley of thieves." 
These names may however be the same with the Welsh 
local name Llanedarn, said to have been so called from St. 

LANHERCH. See Lenhorgt. 

LANHERNE. From the manor of Lanherne, in the 
parish of St. Mawgan, where a family called Pincerna 
(Med. Lat. for cup-bearer) settled and adopted the local 
name as their surname. They became extinct in the elder 
line temp. Edw. L The name is from lanhem, the sanc- 
tuary; literally the iron church or enclosure (lan-hoam). 
Hence the names Langhairne and Langherne. 

LANHIDROCK. From the parish of Lanhidrock in 
Pider hundred; from lan'Hidrock^ the church of St. Hi- 
drock. There is a place named Llanhidrock in Wales. 


LANIGAN. See Langan. 

LANINE. See Lanton. 

LANNAR. See Lenhorgt. 

LANNERGY. From root of Lenborgy, q, v. 

LANNING. See Lanton. 

LANTEGLES, LANTEGLOS. From Lanteglos-by- 
Fowey ; or Lantegles, Lanteglos in Camelford parish ; from 
lan-egles, the church enclosure. Pryce renders LanUeglos^ 
the true church (lante, truth). 

LANTHOIS. From lan-ihouSy the downward church, 
or lan-thew^ the black church. 

LAN WORD ABY. From lan-Wordahy, the place or 
dwelling of Wordaby ; or lan-wortha-va, the place by the 
high stream. 

LANXON. Probably from Lansen, the name under 
which, according to Hals, St. Stephen's near Launceston, 
at the time of the Norman Conquest, was taxed ; from Ian- 
san, the holy church. 

LANYON (Ian-nine). From Lanyon in Gwinear ; from 
lan-eithiuy the furzy enclosure or croft ; or lan-yein, the cold 
enclosure. There is also Lanyon in Madron, and some 
mention a place named Lanyon in Normandy or Bretagne. 
Linyon, Lunyon, Lanine, Lanning, and Lanyon may be 
the same surname. But see also La.ngon. 

LATE. See Laity. 

LATHAN. See Leathan. 

LAUELIS. See Levelis. 

LAUNCE. See Lance. 

LAUNDRY. See Landrey. 

LEATHAN. This name may have been originally Ty- 
leathan or Boleathan ; from ty-laiUan, or bo-lait-an^ both of 


which would translate the milk-house or dairy; but Lea- 
than may also be from le-tan^ the under place. 

LE GASSICK. See Tregaskass. 

LELAND. From the parish of Lelant, in the hundred 
of Penwith. Tonkin translates the name church place (/«• 
Ian) ; but Leland writes it Lannant, a church in a valley 

LELEAN. Another orthography of Leland, q, v.; or 
from le-lheariy the place for pilchards. 

LENDERYON. This name may be a mistake for Len- 
deryow. Both names are found in the Cornwall Directory. 
From lan-derUy the enclosure of oaks. 

LENDRICK. From lan-dour-icky the place by the 
water ; lan^Derrick, the place of Derrick, t. e. Theodoric ; 
or lan-derHchy the place of the sexton. The name wouUl 
also corrupt from Lanhidrock, q, v, 

LENORGY. From the old local name Lanerchy, 
Lanergh ; from lanherch or lannar, a forest or grove, a 
lawn, a bare place in a wood ; hence Lanherch, also the 
place called Lannar in St. Allen, and the surname Lannar. 

LEONARD AN. From lyn-ard-aUy the high pond or 

LESBIREL. From les-Birel, the court or hall of Birel. 

LESTWITHIEL. See Lostwithiel. 

LEUTY. See Laitt. 

LEVEDDON. From leven-don, the bare or smooth hill ; 
or leh'vidn, the place or dwelling in the meadow. Cf. the 
local name Treveddon. 

LEVELIS, LAUELIS. From le-eglis, the church place ; 
or leu-liSy lion court. 



Pryce renders Lewarn, Louarn, the fox place ; but does not 
give the etymology. It is probably from le, lu-wamen^ the 
place of the elder- tree. 

LEZARD. From Lizard or Lizart district ; from lis-ardy 
the high court, hall, or palace. 

LEZEREA. From lis-rea^ the wonderful court or hall (?), 

LIDGEY. There is a place called Canalidgey in St. 
Issey. Le-gy would signify the place by the river or brook. 
Laig is a layman ; lug^ a tower ; lagan, a pond, pool, lake ; 
lued, luih, mire, filth. 

LILLA.THEW. This name may mean the holy goat or 
the black goat. Thew has the various significations of 
black, holy, side, and God ; lill is a goat. {Tew, thew, a 

LEMBRICK. Same as Lambrick, q. v. 

LINKINHORNE. From Linkinhorne in East hundred ; 
properly Lankinhorne, or rather Langanhoarn ; from Ian- 
gan-hoam, the iron church or enclosure, 

LINYON. See Lanyon. 

LISSANT. From Lezant in East hundred, for Lansant ; 
from lansant, the holy church, or the saints' church (All 

LOE. From loe, lo, loo, a lake or pool. There are East 
and West Looe. 

withiel, formerly cap. of Cornwall. Carew translates Lost- 
withiel " lion's tail " ! I derive it from les-uthiel, 'uJial, 
the lofty palace. 

LOUARN. See Lewarn. 

LUDDRA. From led, ledra, a cliff or steep hill. Mr. 
Robert Luddra built the tower of the church in Mullion in 


Kerrier, and according to D. Gilbert was probably an in- 
habitant of the parish in 1600. Ljddra may be the same 

LUDGVAN, From Ludvgan near Penzance ; from 
ludg-'van^ lud-uan, the high -placed town. [I do not find this 
surname, but I have been favoured with it.] 

LUGGAN. From the manor of Luggyen Lose, anc, 
Ludduham, in St. Ives ; or from Lugvan, vulgo Luduan ; 
from lug-van^ the high or high-placed tower (/m^, a tower). 
Pryce derives the local name lUogan from Itig-gan, the 
white tower ; or lug-gun, the tower on the downs ; or lug^ 
Mn, the tower hill. 

LUNYON. See Lanton, 

LUTAY. From lu-teg, the pleasant place ; or luth-ty, 
the miry or filthy dwelling. [Utrum horum mavis accipe.] 

LYDDRA. See Luddra. 

LYNAM, LYNOM. " There are places called Lyneham 
in COS. Oxford and Wilts. The family occur in Cornwall 
as Lynham at an early period, and the Irish branch are 
said to have sprung from that county." (Lower,) Lan-an 
in Cornish would mean the enclosure or church ; lyn-aUy the 


M ABE. From the village and parish of Mabe in Kerrier 
hundred. Hals thinks the name of the vicarage is from 
Cornish mah, mahe, a son, in reference to Milorus, son of 
Melianus, king or duke of Cornwall, who lies buried in 
Milor churchyard ; or that Mab or Mabe, the name of the 
church, refers to Jesus Christ, to whose honour it may have 

p 2 


been erected. According to Tonkin, the name of this parish 
in the king's book is La Vabe, that is, St. Yabe or Mabe's 
Place. One of the nurse names of Abraham is Mabb. 

MABIN, MAIBEN, MAYBIN. From the parish of 
St. Mabyn or Maiben. Ma-hyn would signify the hill 
place. The local name Trevebbyn in Little St. Petroc is 
said to mean the boy's town (mah^ a son). 

veor^ the great place ; or mez-veor, the great meadow. 

MADDERN. Perhaps from St. Maddarne or Madran, 
a vicarage in Pen with hundred. '* Galfridus Monmothensis 
tells us in his chronicle that one Madan was a British king 
in these parts before Julius Cassar landed in Britain, and 
probably that he lived or died here, in memory of whom 
this parish is called Madran, now Maddarne. Here also 
is Maddarne well of water, greatly famous for its healing 
virtues, of which Bishop Hall of Exeter speaks in his work 
entitled the Great Mystery of Godliness, &c." (Hals.) 
But see Madbon. 

MADRON. A family of some distinction that formerly 
dwelt at St. Just, but which is now extinct. The name is 
derived from Madern, Madron ; from vdz-dron^ the good or 
fruitful hill. Cf. Maddern. 

MAGER, MAGOR. From mager, maga, the feeding- 
place. Others connect the name Magor with Mauger, 
Major, Mayor, and Mayer. See also Makkb. 

MAIBEN. See Mabin. 

MAIN, MAINE. See Mtne. 

MAINPRICE. From mean-prdZy the stony meadow. 
Hence the surname Mimpriss. 

MAKER. From the parish of Maker in East hundred ; 


from tTO-i&tfr, the dear or charmiDg place ; or ftom va^geare^ 
the green or fruitful place. But see Magob. 

MALYON. From MuUion parish in Kerrier hundred. 
*^ As in the valuation of Pope Nicholas in 1291 it is called 
Ecclesia Sancte Melanie, and in Archbishop Usher, De Ghris- 
tianarum Ecclesiarum, &c., the famous St. Malo is called 
St. Mellonus, St. Melanius, and Meloninus Britannus, I 
rather take him to have been the patron of this church, and 
to have given his name to the parish." (^Tonkin.) Prjce 
renders Mull-yon, Mul-yein, Mullion, the bare cold place or 
exposure. St. Mellion or St. Melljn in East hundred is 
said to have had its name from St. Melania, the patron of 
the church. 

MANATON, MANETON. From the manor of Mana- 
ton in the parish of Hill South, which is said to have been 
the seat of the family even before the Conquest, although 
the head, Francis Manaton, Esq., some time since removed 
to Kilworthy, near Tavistock, which he became possessed of 
on the death of his relation, Henry Manaton, Esq. Cf. 
Tonkin. The name is probably from mean-^dny the stony 
hill. Manaton is the name of a small village on an emi- 
nence in King's Teignton, Devon. 

MENHINACK, MENHINICK. From men-wmnick, the 
head or top of the marshes. 

MANHANIOT. See Mbnhbnitt. 

MANHIRE. From men-heere, the high head or hill; or 
tnaen-heerey the high stone. 

MAPOWDEB. A family that once possessed the manor 
of Pelsew or Peldu in St. Erme, and also Trenance in 
Withiel. The name may be connected with that of the 


hundred of Powdar, "which Pryce translates the province, 
country, or hundred of oaks (pou-^dar) ; indeed, Powder 
may have been the family name ; and Mab-powder (by 
corruption Mapowder) would translate the son of Powder. 
Ma may also be from va, a place. Mapother is the name of 
a Dublin physician. 

MARRACK. From marrek, marhag^ a soldier, horsemaD, 
knight ; from marchy a horse. 

MAYBIN. See Mabin. 

MAYHOW. A Cornish form of Matthew. "The 
Mayows of Cornwall originally wrote themselves Mayhew." 
(C. S. Gilbert.) 

MAYNE. See Mtne. 

MEAKER. From root of Magor, q, v. 

MEAN. From Mayon or Mean, a small village in 
Sennen parish, near the Land's End, where there is a large 
stone called Table Mean. The name means " the stone." 
But see Mtne. 

MEANWELL. From mean-wheal, the stony wheal or 
work ; or mean-uhal, the lower stone. Meanwhilly is or 
was a local name in the county. 

MEASE. From root of Veasb, q. v. 

THERELL. From Metherill in Calstock ; from meatk- 
ryely the royal plain ; or mez-ryel, the royal meadow. 

MEES. From meas, mes, meZy an open field. 

MEHUISH. See Melhuish. 

MEIN. See Myne. 

MELGESS. From Melgess in St. Agnes, which Pryce 
renders the mill wood (melin-gus), 

MELHUISH, VELLHUISH. Hals mentions these. 


among five others, as the names of the chief inhabitants of 
Penrin in Gluvias. He says, " The name Melhuish is local, 
viz., from the barton or tenement of Melhuish, near Kirton 
in Devon, which signifies a lark-bird, or larks." The 
Cornish has certainly melhuez^ a lark, which Pryce derives 
from mel'hueZy a sweet breath ; or, says he, the bird may 
perhaps be so named from pelhudz, a high flight. The local 
name however can hardly be derived from a lark ; and the 
last syllable is probably from wickj wick, a dwelling. Mell- 
huish, Mellish, Mehuish, and Mellows would seem to be the 
same name. 

MELLADEW, MELLODEW. From melin-thew, the 
black mill. 
MELLODEW. See Melladew. 
MELLOWS. See Melhuish. 

MELYNGISSY. From Melancoose in Golan oi» Colon ; 
or Mellingoose in Cornelly ; from melin-giis, the mill wood. 
MEN AD AW A. From Menadawa in Camborne. Pryce 
renders Menadarva, Menadorva, the watery hill ; or by the 
water; or the hill of oaks (men, a head, hill ; dower, water ; 
deru, oaks). I take it to be from men-dar-va, the head of 
the oak place ; or the head of the watery place. 

MENADUE, or MENANDUE. From Mennadue in 
Luxulion ; from mean-dew, the black rock. 

MENAGWINS. From Menegwins in Gorran ; from 
men-gtvyn, the white head or promontory. Hals renders 
Mena-Gwins in St. Austell, white hills. 

MENEAR, MENNEER. From men-Mr, the long stone ; 
or mener, a mountain, a hill. ^ Cf. the names Minear, Miners, 
Mynor, Mynors. 



MENHENITT, MANHANIOT. From the parish of 
Menheniot (now Menherriot) in East hundred. According 
to Hals, the name means the ancient stone gate (Cornish 
mean-hen, A. S. gate, geat). Others derive it from menedk^ 
Neot, (St.) Neot's hill. In the valuation of Pope Nicholas 
the name of the parish is written Manyhinyhet or Saihinet. 

MENHINACK. See Manhanick. 

MENHINICK. See Manhanick. 

MENZANT. From men-zanz, which may be variously 
rendered the saint's head, the holy or consecrated hill, or 
the head of the bay ; or from men-sanz, the holy stone. 

MERTHER. From Merther in Powder hundred. 
Pryce renders Mer-ther, Mor-dor, on the sea-water. Hals 
says, ^^ Merthyr, Murder refers to the tutelar patron and 
guardian saint (Cohan) of the church, who was a martyr for 
the Christian religion." 

METHERAL. See Meathbel. 

METHERELL. See Meathrel. 

MEVAGISSEY. From Mevagassey in Powder hundred, 
which Hals renders " the hill custom ; otherwise Mena* 
gasseg, after the Welsh, is the hill and waves of the sea " ! 
Carew says the church is called Menaguisy from its two 
tutelar saints Meny and Isey. In Wolsey's Inquisition 
(1521) the church is called St. Menage-zey. Pryce gives 
Mene-guissey, Melin-gissy (a village) ; and Meva-gizey, 
Mene-guissy, Mellin-guissey (a parish) ; both of which he 
renders the mill wood. 

MEYN. See Mtne. 

MICHELL. Not an uncoi^mon surname in Cornwall. 
The name of one family was originally Myohel and Mighe), 


and was so written for many centuries. Tt is merely a 
Cornish form of Michael. The proper name of this family 
would seem to be Coloryan. " The parish register of Ludg- 
van gives births, deaths, and marriages of Mighel de Co- 
loryan, from about 1380. The death of John Mychel de 
Coloryan at the age of 80 is recorded.'' (Inf. John Mi- 
chell, Esq., St. Petersburg.) Under Ludgven or Ludgean 
parish, Gilbert says, ''The name of another farm in Ludgean, 
which cannot be accidental, requires notice. On this farm 
was a well, now destroyed by mines, having, in all probability, 
some slight quality of chalybeate. The water acquired an 
established reputation for the relief of weak sight, and 
hundreds repaired there every year to bathe their eyes. 
The farm is named Collurian, and has been time out of 
mind." There is still a place and property called Colloryan 
in Ludgvan, in possession of the Michell family, one of 
which family is now Her Majesty's Consul at St. Petersburg. 
The Cornish word culurionem signifies the en trail ; clorian is 
a pair of scales ; dory glory, beauty ; but if Gilbert is cor- 
rect, the name Collurian is from the Gr. K0\?\jjpi0Vf xoWovpiov, 
a collyrian, a medicinal application for the eyes. 

MILDREN. This name might be variously rendered the 
town for beasts {mil-tren) ; the beasts' hill {mtl'droii) ; the 
honey town {meUtren) ; the hill of honey (mel'drori), 

MILITON. From the manor of Millaton in Linkin- 
home ; from melin-'tony the mill dwelling ; or melin-doriy the 
mill hill. Meliii'don would also signify the yellow hill. 

MILL. From melyriy a mill. 

MILLAN. From meliny the mill. There is a place 
called Port Melyn, the mill cove. 

MIMPRISS. See Mainprice. 


MINEAR, MINERS. See Menear. 

MINGOOSE. From Mingoose in St. Agnes ; from mm- 
gu8^ the kid's wood. 

MINTY, MYNTAYE. From Min-ty, which will 
variously translate the kid's abode, the stone house or 
dwelling, and the dwelling on the edge ; or from men-teg^ 
the fair head or promontory. 

MITHIAN, MYTHIAN. From Methian, formerly 
Mithian, in St. Agnes. Hals derives the name '^ from mt- 
thuariy i. e. of whey, a notable grange for cows and milk, or, if 
Saxon, from my^thyan^ my servant, or villain by inherit- 
ance" ! Mithian means rather the feeding-place, from 
meihay to feed. The family is now extinct. From this 
name, by interchange of / and py we may have the surnames 
Fiddian, Fithian, and Phythian. 

MOASE. See Vose. 

MODERET. From mod-ryd, the dwelling at the ford ; 
or mod-rydh, the dwelling in the plain, or the flourishing 
dwelling. There is a place called Tremoderet-en-Hell in 
Roche, which Hals renders "Aunt's Hall town, a place 
heretofore notable for its hall ;" and modereb a harth cer- 
tainly does mean " aunt by the mother's side." 

MOGrER. Probably from root of Magor. 

MOLENNECK. Gilbert translates this name gold- 
finches (moleneck), and he gives as the arms a chevron 
Sable, between two goldfinches Proper. It more probably 
signifies the bare place on or near the brook {moel-in-ick). 

MONHURE. From hon^hiry the long dwelling; or 
mean-hir, the long stone. But see Manhire. 

MONTON. From Monathon (Manaccan) in Kerrier 
hundred ; or perhaps rather from Monython in Cury ; from 


bon-tthon, the furzy dwelling. There was a David de Mon- 

MORGAN. From mor-gan, by the sea. 

MORTH, MURTH, MURT. According to C. S. Gil- 
bert, *^ a branch of the Randall family that resided at or 
near Looe assumed the name of Morth or Murth (so written 
in Talland church), but retained the arms of Randall.'* 
Wm. Morth was sheriff of Cornwall 2 Wm. III. The 
name may be from vordh^ a way ; or martk, a wonder, a 
marvel ; varth, miraculous, wonderful. The W. marth is 
flat, plain, or open. The arms of Murth are, Sable, a chev- 
ron between three falcons' legs erased, with bells. Or. 

MOYLE. From Moyle near St, Minver, where the 
family flourished for several generations. They are said to 
have originally descended from the Moyles of Tresurans, in 
St. Columb, or the Moyles of Bodmin. The arms of this 
family are, Gules, a moyle (mule) passant, Argent. The 
name is from moelhy a blackbird; or perhaps rather from 
moelf bald, bare (place). Of. the surname Mole, and the 
Welsh name Moel signifying " bald." 

MUDGAN. See Mudgeon. 

name of a place in St. Martin's in Meneage, is a corruption 
of Muchan, a sort of chimney (from mog, moge^ smoke), 
with a lovour or chimney-hole through the top of the 
house for the smoke; from whence was denominated a 
family of gentlemen, surnamed Mugaun or Mudgan, whose 
sole inheritrix was married to Chynoweth of Chynoweth in 
St. Earth, temp. Queen Mary." {Hals,) The name is 
probably from mogan, great ; or mod, mud-gan, the place 
upon the down. 


MULBERRY. From Mulfra in Madron ; from moel-vre, 
the bald or*bare hill. This is confirmed by Polwhele, who 
renders Moel-vre (vulg5 Mulberry) in St. Austell, the bare 
hill ; and by Pryce, who translates Mulfra, Mulvera, the 
bare hill ; which he also makes a nom. fam. 

MULFRA, MULVERA. From Mulfra in Madron. 
See Mulberry. 

MULVERA. See Mulfra. 

MURT, MURTH. See Morth. 

M YLOR. From the parish of -Mylor in the hundred of 
East Kerrick ; from moel-^r, the stone boundary. 

MYNE. From rkeany men (pi. myyn)^ a stone ; or men^ a 
head, a hill. Hence Main, Maine, Mayne, Mean, Mein, 

MYNON. From mein^n, the stony downs. 

MYNOR, MYNORS. See Menear. 

MYNTAYE. See Mintt. 

MYTHIAN. See Mithian. 


NACOTHAN. See Nancothan. 

NANCARROW. From Nancarrow in St. Allen, which 
Pryce renders the deers' valley, and Tonkin the valley of 
brooks (nan-carrow), 

NANCE. From nans, nance, nantz, a valley; "properly," 
says Pryce, " a level or plain, a dale." There is a place 
called Nants, Nance, or Nans, in Illogan. 


NANCHOLAS. From nan-wollas, the lower valley ; or 
nan-golas, the bottom of the vallej. There is a place called 
TrecoUas in Alternun. 

NANCOLLINS. The valley of Collins, there is 
NancegoUan in Crowan. 

NANCOTHAN. From Nancothan in Madron, said to 
mean " the old valley " (coothy old) ; but it may be from 
han-coit^an, "the woody valley" (coif, cotd, a wood). Hence 
the name Nacothan. John Nacothan occurs in the copy of 
a muster-book for the parish of Redruth in 1500. 

in the parish of Cury, by some rendered the valley of the 
spring or fountain (nan-font). Nan-vown would mean the 
deep or low valley. John Nanfan, whose seat was at 
Trethewoll or Trethvall in St. £val, was sheriff of Corn- 
wall, temp. 7 Hen. VI. Lower says the Nanfans were a 
Cornish family of some distinction, which produced, among 
other worthies^ John Nanfan, Esq., the first patron of 
Cardinal Wolsey, who had been his chaplain. 

NANGARTHIAN. From nan-arth-an, the high valley 
or plain ; or perhaps rather from nan-garz-aUy the enclosure 
in the valley. 

NAN JULIAN. From nan-Julian, the valley of Julian. 
Julian, Jullian, Julyan, Julyn are not uncommon names 
in this county. 

NANKERSEY. From Nankersy in Mylor, where some 
Dutch settlers built the town of Flushing ; from nans- 
hersey, the winding valley. 

NANKERVIS. This name is said to mean the vallev 
in the beautiful place (nan-kerris, gerry) ; but, according t' 
Burlase, Polkerris signifies "lowest stream" (from cerris 


lowest) ; and, if so, Nankervis may mean lowest valley. 
Nawkervis is doubtless the same name. 

KEVILLE, NANSKEVALL. From Nancklvel in 
Mawgan-in-Pyder ; from nan-kevily the horse valley. 

NANPHANT. See Nanfan. 

NANSAVALLEN. See Nansevallen. 

in Luxulion ; from nans-scauan, the valley of elder-trees. 

NANSCORUS. From Nancor in the parish of Creed ; 
from nana-gory the high valley ; or perhaps rather from 
nanS'korSy the valley of gorse (korsen) ; or nam-cors, . the 
boggy or fenny valley (W. corSy a bog, fen). Scorse ap- 
pears to be a Cornish surname. 

NANSCOWAN. See Nanscawen. 

NANSCUKE. From Nancekuke in lUogan ; from 
nance-guik, the village in the valley. 

vallon in Kea ; from nans-avallauy the valley of apple- 

NANSKEVALL. See Nankivel. 

NANSLADRON. From Nansladron (vulgo Lanha- 
dron) in St. Ewe, said to be from nans-ladron, the valley 
of thieves. Nans-ledron would translate the valley with 

NANSPERLAN. Hals says the arms of Nansperian 
were. Argent, three lozenges Sable, and that Nansperian 
signifies the valley of thorns. If so, the last part of 
the name must be from speman, a thorn. The name 
would also translate the valley of St. Perran {Nans* 


NANSPIAN. A contraction of Nansperian {q, v.) ; or 
from nanS'Vean, the little valley. 

NANSTALAN. From Nantillan (found Nantellan) in 
Creed ; from nanUallan^ the miry valley, 

NANSTANCE. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert 
in a list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. 
From nans-dinas, the fortress, city, or walled town in the 
valley; or nans-danasy the valley for deer (W. danas, dani/Sy 

NAVA. See Knava. 

N AWKE RVIS. See Nankervis. 

NEAINE. From an-hedn, the bay, port, or haven. 

NEPEAN, From nan-pean, for nan^veauy the little 

NEWLING. See Newltn. 

NEWLYN. From the parish of Newlyn in Pydar hun- 
dred, or from Newlyn in the parish of St. Paul in Penwith. 
Pryce thinks Newlyn may be from noath-l^n, the open or 
naked lake. Nowth4yn would signify the new pond. Tonkin 
says the parish of Newlin {sic) in Pydar takes its name 
from and is dedicated to a female saint, Sancta Newlina. 

NINESS, NINNES, NINNIS. From Niness in Gwen- 
nap, Ninnes in Madron, or Ninnis in Lelant ; from an-ennisy 
the island. Nennis (i. e. au'ennis) is also said to mean the 
enclosure surrounded by a lane. 

NOAL, NO ALE, NOALL. See No well. 

NODDER. From Nottar in East hundred ; qy. from 
noth-arthy the bare height. 

NOELL. See Nowell. 

NOOTH. From noaihy noothy noihy bare, naked, exposed, 
probably referring to locality. Pryce renders the surname 


l^ooth, ^^new." Nuth and Noad would seem to be the same 

Cornish forms of Noel. 


PARK, PAKEE. From pare, a field, enclosure, park 
for beasts. There is a place called Park in the parish of 
St. Clement's. 

PASCO, PASCOE. A Cornish variation of Pascal, an 
old French baptismal name, first imposed on those born at 
the season of Pasche or Easter. 

PATHERICK. See Petherick. 

PEARDEN, PE ARDON. From per-den, the pear-hill. 

PEARN. From pern, sadness, regret ; or beam, a child. 
Hence, no doubt, Pearne and Peern. 

PEDIGREE. See Pettigrew. 

PEDRICK. See Petherick. 

PEERN. See Pearn. 

PELLEW, PELLOW, PILLOW, are doubtless the 
same name. Lower, under Pellew, says Lord Exmouth's 
family are of Coruish origin ; and he seems to think that 
the name is a Tariation of Bellew, which he considers of 
Norman origin, from bel-eau {hella^ujua), the fair water, 
the designation of some locality, as Belleau parish in co. 
Lincoln. As Cornish names, Pellew, &c., may be derived 
from the pi. of pil, a sea-ditch, trench filled at high water, 
a manor, lordship. 

PELNIDDON. From Pelniddon in St. Austell, which 


Tonkin renders " the top of the ford *' (pol-nyd). He says 
Pelniddon was a knightly family. 

PEMBER. From pen-ber^ the short head, little promon- 
tory. The name Henrico de la Pombre is mentioned as a 
witness in a deed made by Simon de Alls, in which he gave 
the manor of Laneseley to the Prior of St. German's and 
others. (See D. Gilbert, ii. 119.) Pember, Pombre may 
be the same as what Leland calls Pembro. *' From Godol- 
can to Pembro, &c." 

PEMEWAN, PERME WAN. From pen-mean, the head 
of the stone or rock ; or the stony promontory. Ber-mean 
would translate the short stone. 

PEN, PENN. From pen, a head, hill. . Hence perhaps 
the names Penna, Benny, Benney, Pinney. 

MICK. From the barton and manor of Penalmicke in 
Stithians, which Hals renders " the head or chief coat-of- 
mail armour ; so called for that such armour was made 
or lodged in this place in former ages by the possessors 
thereof." The name is rather from pen-elan-ick, the head 
of the elms' place. 

PENALUNA. From pen-lyn, the head of the pond or 
' pool. 

PENALURICK. See Penhalurick. 

PENARTH. From pen-arth, the high or lofty head. 

PENBERTHY. From Penberthy ; from pen-berth, -verth, 
the green top. Pryce renders " berthy, to bear, to carry ; 
Treberthes in Veryan, the bearing or fruitful place." 

PENBERY. From pen-bry, the head of the hill ; or 
pen-bry, the head of the clay. 

PENBETHA. From pen-bedJwu, the head of the graves. 



PENBETHY. (A name found in the United States.) 
From Penbetha or Penberthy, q. v. 

PENCAROW, PENCARROW. From an estate in 
Ejlos-Hayle, which had an old family of gentlemen of its 
own name as owners down to the reign of Henry VII. {Hals.) 
There is or was a village called Pencarow in Advent. Hals, 
after referring to another etymology, "j5«w-carow,|>m-caro, alias 
pen-caroWy i. e., head deer or chief deer, formerly part of the 
Peverells' deer-park, and from thence so denominated as some 
think," considers the name to be " from pen-caer-ou or pen-caer' 
ow, i. e., my head castle or city, intrenched or fortified place, 
according to the artificial and natural circumstances thereof, 
it being on a hill overlooking the contiguous country." 
Tonkin says, '* I take the name of Pencarrow to be of a much 
more ancient date than the first bringing of deer into this 
laud, and that the name is taken from the natural circum- 
stances of the place, as compounded of pen^car-ow^ head- 
rock-ry ; for in this place is digged a quarry of bright clear 
freestone, that works with tool, plane, or hammer, ec^al to 
any other in Cornwall, as may be seen by the beautiful 
house Sir John Molesworth has built with it, &c." Fen' 
carew would translate the head place of the deer; pert' 
caraUy the stag's head ; pen-carrow^ the head of the rock ; 
pen-carrogy the head of the brook. 

PENCAVEL. See Penkevil. 

PENCOLL. From PencoU in St. Enodor ; from pen-col, 
the head of the ridge, or of the promontory {col for kil). Hals 
renders PencoU or Pencooth " the head wood, a name also of 
old, taken from the ancient natural circumstances of the place." 

PENCOOSE. From Pencoose in Kenwyn, or Pencoose 
in Perran Arwarthal ; from pen^cus, the head of the wood. 


Pendrea in the parish of Burian ; from pen^rea, the head 
towD, or pen-davy the head of the oak. The Pendars were 
seated at TVevidden in Burian for upwards of five centuries. 
PENDARVES, PENDARVIS. From Pendarves in 
Camborne ; from pen-dar-vizy the head of the oak-field. 

PENDEEN, PENDENE. From Pendeen in St. Just ; 
which Pryce renders " head man's place." It is more pro- 
bably from pen-den^ 'din^ the head of the hill. 

PENDENNIS. From the castle of Pendenis or Pen- 
dunes (ancient name of St. Ives) ; from pen-^inaz^ -dinas, 
the peninsula or fortified headland ; or, according to Cam- 
den, the head fort, fortress, or fortified place. 
PENDER, PENDRE. See Pendab. 
PENDERAY, PENDRY. From root of Pendered, 
q, V. 

PENDERED, PENDRED. From pen-draith, the head 
of the sands (draitk, gravel, sand, the sandj shore covered 
at high water). But see Pendab. 
PENDRY. See Pendebat. 
PENELIGAN. See Penhaligon. 
PENFERN. From Penwame, the appellation of several 
places in Cornwall ; from pen-wame^ -wem, -gwemy the 
head of the alder-trees ; or it may be the same with Pen- 
foune, q. v. The manor of Kennal in Stithians belonged to 
Matthew Penfern, temp. Edw. IT. 

PEN FOUND. This family, who are traced eight gene- 
rations beyond 1620, derived their name from the estate of 
Penfound in Poundstock. "They ruined tnemselves by 
their adherence to the Stuarts ;'' and Ambrose Penfound, 

G 2 


who alienated the estate of his ancestors, died at Dartmouth 
about 1764. (C. ^S^. Gilbert,) From root of Penfoune, q, v. 

PENFOUNE, PENFOWNE. Tonkin mentions a Pen- 
foune in Poundstock as the seat of a very ailcient family 
from thence denominated. Hals renders ** Pen-fon, now 
Penfowne, in Poundstock, the head well, spring of water, 
or fountain ;" but the name more probably means *' the head 
of the well." Hence the names Pen found and Pin found. 

PENGARSICK. From Pengarswick in St. Breock in 
Kerrier, concerning which Hals says, " Pen-gar-wick, in this 
parish, also Pen-gars-wick, id est^ the head word or com- 
mand, fenced or fortified place ; so called from the command 
or authority of the lord thereof heretofore in these parts» 
and the strength of the house and the tower thereof; 
otherwise Pen-gweras-ike, i. e,, the creek, cove, or bosom 
of waters, head help, as situate upon the sea, or waters of 
the British Channel " ! Pryce translates Pen-gersick, the 
green headland {pen-geare-ick ?)\ but it may also come from 
pen-garz-icky the head of the hedge place. 

gelly in Blisland, Pengelly in St. Teath, or Pengilly in 
Creed ; from pen-gilly, -g^Hy^ the head of the grove. 

PENGLAZE, PENGLASE. From Penglaze in Crowan, 
or Penglaze in Kenwyn ; from pen-glase, -glaze^ the green 
head or promontory. 

PENGOLD. From Pengold in St. Gennys ; from pen- 
goly the holy head, or pen-col^ the head of the ridge. 

PENGOVER. From Peugover in Menherriot ; from 
pen-govevy the head of the brook. 

PENGREE. From pen-grauy the head of the sand or 


gravel ; or from Pengreep in Gwennap, from peu'greab, 
-crib, the head of the rock. 

PENGUICK. From Penkuke in Gennys ; from pen- 
kuke, 'Quiky the head village, or the head of the village. 

PEN GULL Y. See Pbngbllt. 

PENH ALE, PENH ALL. From Penhale, the name of 
places in Davidstow, Duloe, Gwinear, Ladock, Lanivet, and 
the Luxulion, and of a manor in Perranzahuloe ; from pen^hdl, 
head of the moor. Hals says, '* In Domesday, Eyles-keiTy 
(1087) was taxed under the name of Pen-hall-an, now Pen- 
heale, then and still the voke-lands of a considerable manor." 
Tonkin calls it Penhele or Penhale, which he renders the 
head of the river. Penhell and Penheale are doubtless the 
same name. Of. Penhallow. 

From pen-helygaUy the head of the willows. Cf. Pen- 

PENH ALL. See Penhale. 

PENHALLINYK. From pen-elin-icky the head of the 
angular place ; or pen-elan-icky the head of the place of 
elms. Warin Penhallinyk was Prebendary of the monas- 
tery of Penryn, Rector of St. Just in Roseland, Vicar of 
Wendron and of the adjoining parish Stithyans. Cf. Pen- 

PENHALLOW. From an estate in Philleigh, where 
the family dwelt from temp. Edw. III. till the middle of 
the 18th century ; also the appellation of places in Newlyn 
and Perranzahuloe. The name is derived from pen-halloWy 
the head of the moors. Cf. Penhale. 

PENHALURICK. From Penhalurick, which Polwhele 
renders the head of the rich moors (perhaps pen-hdl-rik). 


Penalurick, Penularick, Penhaluwick, Penlirick, Penlerick, 
are merely different forms of the same name. 
. PENHALUWICK. See Pbnhalubick. 

PENHEALE. From Penheale in Alternun. But see 

PENHELL. From Penhell, a tenement in St. Michael 
Penkevil. But see Penhale. 

PENHELLICE. From an estate in the parish of St. 
Clements, where the elder branch became extinct at an 
early period ; from pen-hellik^ the head of the willows. 
Penhellick is also the appeUation of places in Broadoak and 
Ulogan. Cf. Penhaligon. 


PENKETH. See Penniket. 

PENKETHLY. Perhaps from Penkelly in Pelynt; 
from root of Pengelly. But see also Penkbth. 

PENKETHMAN. From pen-coet-maen^ the head of the 
woody place ; or pen-coet-mdn, the head of the little wood. 

CAVEL. From the manor or barton of Penkevil St. 
Michael, in Powdre hundred, where the family flourished 
till the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The local name is de- 
rived from pen-kevilf the horse's head. 

PENLEASE, PENLEZ. From Penlees in St. Breock ; 
from pen-glase, the green head ; or pen-leaSy ^leeSf the head 
of the open. 

PENLEE. From pen-lCy the head of the place. Pryce 
renders it the head or point of land projecting. Penley 
would seem to be the same name. 

PENLERICK. See Penhalurick. 

PENLEY. See Penlee. 


PENLEZ. See Penlease. 

PENLIGAN. See Penhaligon. 

PENLIRICK. See Penhalubick. 

PENLYER. From pen-leavy the head of the sea (Ir. 
lear^ the sea). Pen-l'&ar would signify the head of the gar- 
den ; pen-ledr^ the head of the cliff or steep hill. 

PENMAN. From pen-maeny the head of the rock, or 
the stone head or promontory. 

PENN, PENNA. See Pen. 

PENNALYKY. From pen^hellik, the head of the wil- 
lows. There is a Pennellick in Peljnt. Cf. Penhellick 
and Penhaligon. 

PENNANT. The well-known Pennant family are from 
the parish and township of that name, co. Montgomery. 
The Cornish family are from Pennant in St. Endellion, 
or Pennant in St. Cleer ; from perir-nanty the head of the 


PENNIKET, PENIKETT. From the ancient family 
of Pentquit and De Pencoit, that lived at Penquite in Giant, 
temp* Hen. III. and Edw. I. The name is from pen^qutte, 
-coity the head or top of the wood. Penquite is the appella- 
tion of places in Blisland, St. Breward, and Lanivet ; and 
tbere is a Penquitte in Landrake ; and Pole gives Pennycot 
and Penquit as the name of places in Devonshire. Penket, 
Penketh are the same name. 

PENNO. See Penkow. 

PENNOCK. See Pinnock. 

PENNO W, PENNO. From pedmw, the great head ; 
w pennouy a hill. 


PENPHRAISE. See Penpiuse. 

PENPONS. From Penpons, an estate in the parish of 
St. Kew, formerly the property of the family ; from pen" 
pons, the head of the bridge. 

PENPRASE, PENPRAZE. From pen-prds, the head 
of the meadow. Hence Penfraze, Penprice, and the U.S. 
name Penphraise. 

PENPRICE. See Penprasb. 

PENRHYN. See Penrin. 

PENBICE. From an estate in the parish of St Austell. 
Pryce translates the name, the head of the fleeting ground 
{penrricey "Veea). Penrice, however, is the name of a castle 
and manor, written anc. Pen-Rhys, co. Glamorgan, where a 
family of this name resided in early times. 

PENRIN, PENRHYN. From Penryn in Kerrier hun- 
dred ; from penrin, for peu'ruan, the head or promontory 
of the channel ; but, according to some, the head of the 
hill (peu'rhyn), 

PENROSE. From Penrose, the name of places in Blis- 
land, Luxulion, and Sithney ; from peri'TOse, the head oi 
the valley; according to Gilbert, the hill of the heatb 
(peri'TOs). Hence, by corruption, the names Perose and 

Penruddocke, ''The family first appear at Arkelby, ca 
Cumberland; but as there is, in the neighbourhood of tha; 
place, in the parish of Greystock, a hamlet so called, thej 
are presumed to have originated there. The Encyc. Herald, 
however assigns arms to a family of this name in that land 
of Pens, Cornwall, and so there may be two local origins 
and distinct families. The surname has long been associ- 


ated with Wiltshire and Hampshire." Fen-ruddock would 
signify the hill of the robin redbreast ; bat the name is 
more probably from pen-rydh'ick^ the place of the red 
promontory ; or pen-ryd-ick, the head of the ford place* 

PENTER. See Pentirb. 

PENTINE. From pen-tin, -din, the head of the fortified 
place ; or from the manor of Pentuan in Mevagissey ; or 
Pentwan or Pentuan in St. Austell ; both from pen-towan, 
"tuany 'tut/n, the head of the sand. banks. 

PENTIRE. From Pentire in Endellion ; from pen-tiry 
the headland. '' The manor of Pentuan (in Mevagissey) 
was the property, and its barton the chief seat, of the 
Pentires, after they removed from Pentire in Endellion." 
(Z>. Gilbert,^ Penter is the same surname. Penter's Cross 
is the appellation of a village in Pillaton, in East hundred. 

PENTQUIT. See Penniket. 

PENTBEATH. From pen-treatJt, the head of the sea- 

PENULARICK. See Penhalurick. 

PENVER. From pen-veory the great head. 

PENWARDEN. From pen-warth-en, the high head or 

PENWARN, PENWARNE. From Penwarn in Maw- 
nan, or Penwarn in Mevagissey ; from pen-wamy the head 
of the alder-trees. 

pen-gavar, the goat's head, or the head of the goat's place. 
Pryce renders the local name Polwheverell, the kids' pool. 

PENWITH. From the hundred of Penwith, which 
Camden renders " the left-hand promontory." Others derive 
the name from pen-guithy ^guydhy the most conspicuous high 


land. The name may abo mean the high head or pro- 

PENWORVERELL. See Penwarvebell. 

is said to have flourished at Truro in the reign of the 
Conqueror. These names are from pen-is-ton, the head of 
the com enclosure ; or the first pait of the name may be 
that of the owner, Penny. 

PERMEWAN. See Pemewan. 

PEROSE. A probable corruption of Penrose, q. v, 

PERRANAHNEUTHNO. From the parish of Per- 
ranutho or Perran Uthno, t. e., Perran by the exposed height 
or swelling (uth-^no). This family is now merged in the 
female branch. 

PERROW. Probably from the French Pierre, Peter ; 
like Clemow, from Clement. 

PETERICK. See Petherick. 

PETHEICK. See Pbthick. 

PETHERICK. From Little Petherick or St. Petroc 
Minor, a parish and village in Pyder hundred, so called from 
the church being dedicated to St. Petrock, t. e,, St. Peter. 
Cf. the names Patherick, Pedrick, and Peterick. 

PETHICK, PETHEICK. From peth-, pith-icky the rich 
dwelling (j>ethf pithy riches, wealth). 

PETTICRU. From the manor of Pettigrew in Gerans 
parish, in Powdre hundred ; from bedh^y-greWy the crane's 
grove. Hence the U. S. name Pedigree. 

PETVIN. A probable corruption of Petherwin, q, r. ; 
or from bedho'veany the little birch-tree. 


PHEASANT, FESANT. From Lepheasant, near St. 
Anstell ; from le-viasany the lower place ; or le-veasSy the 
outward place. Fazan, Fazon are most probably the same 

PHYSICK. According to some, from Lefisiek, in St. 
Austell. Hals considers Lefisiek in St. Me wan the Re- 
fishoc of Domesdaj. Cf. Bosvisick (see Bossowsack) ; also 
Trerisick in Blisland. D. Gilbert gives a place named 
Tre-izack, which he renders the corn town. Yisick and 
Yisack are most probably the same name as Physick. 

PHYTHIAN. See Mithian. 

PILE, PHjL. From ptl, a little hillock ; also a sea 
ditch or salt-water trench, a trench filled at high water, a 
little harbour. According to Lhuyd, pill is also a manor or 

Pn^LAMONTAYNE. See Pollamounter. 

PILLIVANT. See Bullivant. 

PILLOW. See Pellbw. 

PINABD. From pen^ardy the high head of land or 
rock ; or the high hill. 

PINFOUND. See Penfoune. 

PINKERVIEL. See Penkevil. 

PINNEY. See Pen. 

PINNICK. See Pinnock. 

PINNOCBL From the parish of the same name. Pryce 
gives ^'Pennick, Penneck, Penek, ack, ock, ok, the head 
creek, brook, rivulet, or place ; Penok, head oak, nom. fam." 
A more reasonable derivation would be from pen-tcky the 
head place. Penneck, Pennick, Pennock, Pinnick, Pen- 
nerkes, may be the same name, or of the same origin. 

FLAMING. Another orthography of Plymin, q. v. 


PLYMIN, PLAMES'G. From pleu-men, the stony 
parish or place. 


POLAND. See Bollakd. 

POLARD. See Pollabd. 

Mawgan in Pjder ; from poUkam^ the head of the heap of 
rocks ; or the rockj head, or rockj pool. 

POLEGREEN. See Polgbean. 

POLGANHORN. See Polkinghobnb. 

glase in St. Earme, not far from Killigrew (of which manor 
it anciently formed part) ; or Polglaze, name of places in 
Cuhj and Curj parishes ; from pol-gUue, 'glazty the green 

POLGREAN, POLGREEN. From Polgrean in St. 
Michael Carhays ; from pol-greaUy the gravel pits. Hence 
the U. S. name Polegreen. 

POLHAL, POLHILL. See Polwhele. 

POLITO. See Bolitho. 

POLKEARNE. See Polcbabne. 

Polkinghome in Gwinnear ; from pol-gan-hoarn^ a pool 
with (containing) iron, t. «., a chalyheate pool, a medicinal 
pool. Hence, by contraction, the name Polkom. 

POLKORN. See Polkikghobne. 

POLLAMOUNTAIN. See Pollamounteb. 



Polmanter Downs at St. Ives, and PoUamoant in Pyder. 
According to D. Gilbert, the Polamonters are from Polla- 
monter in Newland. Tonkin, under Newlin, says Palla- 
maunter or Palmaunter was formerly a gentleman's seat, 
and gave name to an ancient family since removed to 
Trevyzick, in St. Columb Minor. One of the oldest ortho- 
graphies of this surname was Pillamontayne. The name 
may mean the head of the mountain, from pol, a head. 
Pil is a little hillock, a sea ditch, a trench filled at high 
water; and pill is a manor or lordship. 

POLLAN. See Bollahd. 

POLLARD, in H. R. POLARD. From pol-ard, the 
high top or head. 

POLLCOWE. See Polleowe. 

POLLEN. See Bolland. 

POLLEOWE or POLLCOWE. I know not the proper 
orthography of this name, but it is most probably Polleowe. 
There is Polga in Jacobstow. Polgoda in Peransand is from 
poUgoday the head of the wood ; and Polgoth signifies the 
old pit. 

POLLET. See Polwhelb. 

POLLITTO. See Bolitho. 

POLLOMOUNTER. See Pollamounter. 

POLLYBLAND. See Poi^blank. 

POLLYN. From poUlyny the head or top of the pond 
or pool. There is Polean in Pelynt, which Pryce derives 
from pol'leauy the full pool. 

pol-meary the great pool or pit. There is Polmear Cove in 


POLMENNA. From Polmenna in Philleigh ; from 
poUmean^ the stony pool ; poUmeny the head of the pool ; 
or poUminoWy the small well, pit, pool, top, or head. 

POLMERE. See Polmkab. 

POLOMOUNTER. See Pollamounter. 

POLPORTH. From pol-porth, the top or head of the 
bay or haven. This family is extinct. 

POLRUDDON. From Polruddon in St. Austell ; from 
poUrud'dony the head of the red hill ; pol-radn^ the head of 
the division ; or pol'fuan, the river head. " Polruddon, the 
ruynes of an auntient howse somtymes the howse of John 
Polruddon, whoe was taken out of his bed by the Frenche 
in the time of Henry the 7, and carried away with violence, 
and then began the howse to decay e ; and Pen warn, the 
howse of Mr. Otwell Hill, was buylded with Polruddon 
stones." (Norden.) 

POLSTRONGr. From pol-tron, the head of the promon- 
tory. There is however a place called Polston near Laun- 

POLSUE. From poUsuBy -sewy the black pool. 

POLUND. See Bolland. 

POLWARNE. From poUwamey the pool of alders. 

POLWARTH, POL WART. From pol-warthy the high 
head or promontory, or the «high pool. '^ Of that ilk, in 
Berwickshire. The heiress married Saint Clair, temp. 
James III. — Nisbet." (Lower,) 



POLWHELE. The name is found written POL- 


POLLEY ; and is derived from Polwhele, in Domesday 
Polhel, a manor occupied under Edward the Confessor bj 
Winus de Polhal (Polwel or Polwyl). Pryce derives the 
name Polwhele from pol-whele, the pool work ; or pol* 
giLBuly the top of the field. According to Burke, the family 
claims Saxon origin. 

POL WIN. From Polwin in Cury ; Polwin in Mawgan 
in Meneage ; or Polwyn in Golan ; from pol-ivyn, the white 
pool, or the white head or promontory. 


POLYBLAND. See Polyblank. 

POLYBLANK. From pol-blanc, the colts' pool {blanc^ 
a young horse). Hence Polly bland and Poly bland. Polly- 
blank and Pulleyblank are found as Devonshire surnames. 

PORTH. From porth^ a gate, a sea-port, sea-coast, bay, 
or haven. D. Gilbert gives a place called Porth in St. 
Anthony in Powder. There are Port in Mawgan in Pyder, 
and four local names commencing with Porth. 

POWDER. A name found in the United States. It is 
probably derived from Powder hundred in Cornwall. Pryce 
renders Powdar the province, country, or^hundred of oaks 

PRADE. See Praed. 

PRAED, PRADE, PREAD. From prdz (Bas Bret. 
prM)y a meadow. There is a place named Praze in Crowan. 

PRAISE. See Price, 

PREAD. See Praed. 

PREDEANCE. From prt-dinaZf -dinaSy the clay fortress 
or bulwark. 

PREEN. See Brebn. 


PRETHOWAN. See Trethoav. 

PREWBODY. See Trewbodt. 

PRICE. The Welsh name is said to be from Ap-Blce 
or •Bees, soq of Rioe or Bees ; bat both names maj be from 
Cornish prds^ a meadow. Prree, Pijse, Brice, and the 
U. S. Praise would seem to be the same name. See also Bees. 

PBIDEACX (found PBYDIAUX). This ancient 
familj are said to trace their descent from Paganns, lord of 
Prideanx Castle in Loxilion ; frxxn French pres cTeaux^ 
near the waters, ^ the sea f<xinerlj flowing up as high as this 
place.^ I hare elsewhere derived this name from prateUum, 
dim. of prolwai, a meadow ; but Tonkin thinks it may also 
be fi^«n pri, pn\i^ dar, and am^ the same with a/«, the 
cliff or sea-shore. Cf. mr noiice of the name in Notes and 
Queries (2nd &, No. 52, fi^ 512). See also D. GUbert 
(iiL 56"^ ; Shirlej's Noble and Gentle Men ; and Lower's 
Paironrmica Britannica. 

the Welsh name, and if so fr\^m Ap-Rhjn, son of Rhjn. 
But qu. the Cornish f '7m, a mountain ; prem^ timber, wood ; 
priiMMy elajej ground* soft clajej Teins of tin, te. Also see 


PROUSE^ See Prowse* 

PROW$^ PROUSE. Fh>m pnLs a meadow ; or bras, 
great* If from the Welsh^ perhaps fr«im Ap-Bowse. 

PRYCE* Stei? Price- 


PRYR« This name maj mean a dajej place ; from 
jwn; elar* 


PRYSK. See Price. 



QUAINTANCE. A corruption of Qaintin's. 

QUANCE. Qu. from coth-naneey the old valley. This 
name would also corrupt from Quaintance. 

QUARM, QUARME, QUARAM. Walter Quarme, 
clerk, dwelt at Nancar. These names are probably cor- 
rupted from Warn, Warne, q. v, 

QUARM AN. Lower renders this name " quarry man." 
But qu. from car-man, the rocky or rock place (W. man, a 

QUETHIOCK. From Quethiock parish in East hun- 
dred. " Mr. Lysons says the anc. name was Cruetheke ; it 
is commonly pronounced Quithik." (Z). Oilbert) The local 
name is also found written Quedyock. Pryce says Quithi- 
ock, Queth-yk, means " the weavers' place " {queth, cloth ; 
quethy, to weave). 

QUICK, QUICKE. From guik, wick, a village. Quick 
is not an uncommon Bm*name, and Geake is perhaps the 
same name. 

QUITMAN. From quit-ban, -van, the high wood, or quit- 
mdn, the stony wood. There is a place named Quitman in 
the Southern States of N. A. 


ancient name. From radn, a division. 
RADFORD. From reden-vordh, the fern way. 


98 PATKoinrMiCA 

RADMORE. From reden-vor, the great ferny place. 

RADNOR. Pryce renders this name the fern land ; no 
doubt from reden-noor, 

RAIL, RAILE. From Rajle in lilogan ; from ryely 

RAME (De). An ancient name in Cornwall, derived 
from the parish and manor of Rame in East hundred. '' The 
arms of Rame/' says Tonkin, "were, in allusion to the 
name. Azure, a scalp of a ram's head Argent, armed." 
** The manor of Rame," says D. Gilbert, "and the advowson 
of the living, continue in the Edgcumbe family ; but the 
barton has for some generations belonged to the Edwardses, 
and, under the name of Rame Place, is still their residence. 

The remarkable feature of this parish is 

Rame Head, or, as it is usually called, the Ram ; and it is 
a general belief that the name is taken from the resemblance 
of the point to the Roman battering-ram, as the Lizard is 
supposed to be so called from the long flat serpentine for- 
mation resembling the body of a saurian animal ; but it 
seems to be niuch more probable that these observed 
resemblances should have corrupted some former names 
accidentally agreeing with them in sound, than that the 
promontories should be refdly distinguished by appellations 
so very modern." The name is most probably from Brit. 
ram^ rama, great, high ; ramy a height, elevation ; raniy rham^ 
that which projects or is forward ; rhamu, to project, go 
forward ; whence Ramhead on the coast of Ireland ; Ram- 
saig, on a point in Skye ; Ramasa, an isle N. of Lismore, co. 
Argyle ; Ram Head, a point opposite Portsmouth ; Ram- 
syde, on a point in Lancashire ; and Carrick Ram, a pro- 
montory in Wigtonshire. 


BASCOILEN. From rose-kelin, the valley of the holly- 

BASOIBEN. The Cornwall Directory gives this as a 
surname. The etymology is doubtful. Qu. from rose^ a 
valley ; and ben, a head, hill. 

EASPEY. Qu. from Bospeath in Ludgvan ; from ro5- 
peth, the rich mountain, meadow, or common ; or rose-peth, 
the rich valley. 

REECE. See Rees. 

REES. Some derive the Welsh name Rees, which they 
say was originally written Rhys, from Apn/jf, Mars. Pryce, 
however, renders Fen-rice, -rees, the head of the fleeting 
ground. Rheese is the name of a moor in Cornwall ; and 
Reese, Rice, Rise, Ryce, Ryse are also found as surnames. 

REFRAWELL. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert 
in a list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. There 
is a place named Trefaul in Lanreath. Tref-ryal would 
signify the royal town or dwelling. The Yf.ffrwyl is mist; 
ajid ffrowi/l, outrage, tumult. 

REFRY. See Trefbt. 

RELTON. See Rialton. 

. REPUKE. From tre-buch, the dwelling of the cow ; 
tre-boc, the place of the buck or goat ; or tre^bucha, the 
ghost's place. 

RESCASSA. See Rosecassa. 

RESCORLA. See Roscorla. 

RESEIGH. From ros-aeigh, the dry valley. 

RESKILLEY. See Roskellt. 


H 2 


rose-kei'Veor, the great dog valley ; according to others, the 
great dog's race. 

RESPRYNN. From res^pren, the valley of timber or 
wood, or the woody valley ; or from res-Prynn, Prynn's 
valley. According to C. S. Gilbert, the Prynn family 
were formerly called Resprynn, and are supposed to have 
originated from Resprynn, an estate in the parish of 

RESS. See Ross. 

RESTALOCK. This ancient name may be from ros- 
tallacky the highly-situated common or moss. It would also 
corrupt from Tretallack. See Retallack. 

RESTRONGET. From the manor of Restronget, ad- 
joining that of Carclew in Mylor, formerly written Res- 
trongas, which Tonkin renders " the valley with the deep 
promontory or point of land " (res, ros, trong, gas, guys). BeS' 
tron-coet would mean the valley with the woody promontory. 
D. Gilbert says, if gas or guys, which Tonkin says means 
deep in Cornish, should also, as in some other languages, 
bear the correlative sense of lofty, his explanation of Res- 
tronget would be more complete. 

RESUGGAN. See Rosooan. 

Retallock in St. Colomb Major, which, according to Pryce, 
signifies a very high place with many pits. The name was 
doubtless originally Tretallack ; from tre-tallacky -tcUlickf the 
highly-situated dwelling. 

RTALTON. From Rialton, or Ryalton, in St. Colomb 
Major ; from ryal-, ryel-ton, royal town. Lower gives the 
surname Relton from a manor in Pydre hundred, mentioned 
in the Rotuli Hundredorum, temp. Edw. L 


RICE. See Rees. 

RISDON. From reese-don^ the hill by the fleeting 
ground ; or from Rhysdon, the hill of Rhys or Rees. 

RISE. See Rees. 

ROS, ROOSE. See Rose. 

ROSAGAN. See Rosogan. 

anc. ROSCARRAKE. From Roscarrake in St. Endellion ; 
from ros-caraky -carrtk, the rocky vale ; or rSs-carrog, the 
valley of the brook. The barton of Crone or Croan in 
Eglos-hayle was formerly the property of the family. 

ROSCOE. See Roscrott. 

ROSCOLLA. From ros-col, the valley of the ridge or 
neck (of the hill). 

ROSCORLA. From Roscorla in. St. Austell ; from ros- 
corhlan, the valley of the burying place ; or ros-corlan, the 
valley of the sheepfold or cot, or the fold or place enclosed. 
Hals renders the local name Roscorla, the promontory and 
fat valley of land. 

ROSCOW. See Roscrow. 

ROSCRAW. See Roscrow. 

ROSCROUGE. See Roscruge. 

ROSCROW, ROSCROWE. From an estate in the 
parish of Gluvias, which was possessed by the family in the 
I4th century. The family became extinct temp. Hen. VL, 
or before. In the reign of Hen. VIII. the name was 
assumed by the family of Harry, who became extinct in the 
17th century. ((7. S. Gilbert.") The name is derived from 
rose-erou, -crow, the valley of the cross ; or the valley 
cross. Roskraw, Ruscrowe, Roscoe, Roscow, Ruscoe^ 




Ruscow would seem to be the same name. But see 


ROSCROWGIE. See Roscrugb. 

ROSCRUG-E. Hals says the estate of Roscruge, in the 
parish of St. Anthony in Kerrier, "gave name and original 
to a family of gentlemen now or lately in possession thereof.*' 
Polwhele translates the surname Roscreege, the valley of the 
barrow (creeg, a barrow). Pryce renders Roscreege, as 
well as Roserow, the valley cross. Roskruge, Roscrowgie, 
and Rescrouge are doubtless the same name. He also 
renders Crow-gie, cross hedge. But see RoscROW. 

ROSE. From some place of the name, perhaps from 
Rose in Perranzabuloe ; from rose, roshy a valley between 
hills; or from ros, a mountain meadow, common, moss. Hence 
the names Ress, Roose, Ros, Ross, Rosse, Rous, Rouse, 
Rowse, Ruse, Rush. 

ROSECOSSA. From Rosecossa in St. Just in Roselant; 
from rose'CoosCf -c^s, the woody valley. Hence, by corruption, 
the name Rescassa. 

Rosecregg in the parish of St. Anthony Meneage, where the 
family were resident in 1 820 ; from root of Roscruge, q, v, 

ROSEKILLEY. See Roskellt. 

ROSELIAN. From Rosillian, Roselian, or Rose-Sillian, 
in St. Blazey. Pryce renders Rose Lyon, the vale in open 

in Gulval ; or Rosmeran in Budock ; from rose-merrtyi, the 
rale of blackberries (L. morua). 

ROSENITHON. From R6snithen, which Pryce renders 
the furzy vale (rose-n-eithen). 


ROSEUNDLE. From Roseundle in St. Austell, which 
Hals renders '* bundle of rushes ;" but the name means 
rather the woody valley (W. gwyddle, a place covered with 

ROSEVEAL. From rose-veal, the calves' valley. 

VEER, ROSEVERE. See Rosveab. 

ROSEWALL. From rose-gual, 'Valy the valley with a 
wall or fence. 

Rosewarne in the parish of Camborne ; from roae-wame^ 
the valley of alders. Hence, no doubt, the U. S. name 

ROSEWHARM. A name found in the United States. 
See Rosewarne. 

ROSKEAR. From ros-leary the dear or lovely valley. 

KILLEY, RESKILLEY. From rose-kill^ the grove in 
the valley. 

ROSKRUGE. See Roscruge. 

ROSKYMER. See Reskimer. 

gan in St. Stephen ; from rosesog-an, the moist valley. 
Hals renders the local name Tresuggan, in St. Colomb 
Major, " the town on the Saggor Bog." " The arms of 
Rosogan of St. Stephen in Bronnel are. Argent, a chevron 
between three rose Gules, bearded Proper, seeded Or." 

ROSS, ROSSE. See Rose. 

VEAR. From rose-veor, the great valley. 


ROSWARNE. See Rosewarne. 

ROSWARTHICK. From ros-warth-ick, the high place 
in the valley. 

ROSWARVA. From rose-warva (for wariha\ the higher 
valley ; or rose^gudva, the winterly or exposed valley {gudv, 
guafy winter). 

I^rom rounsen»vyl, the asses' village or dwelling ; or rounsen^ 
gualj the asses' wall or fence. There is Goon Rounsan, 
" the asses' down," in St. Enodor. Cf. Roncesvalles, a fron- 
tier village of Spain, Navarre. 

ROUS. See Rose. 

ROUSE. From Rouse in Pillaton ; from root of Rose, 
q, V, 

ROWSE. See Rose. 

RUBERRY. From ru-brt/y the clay street ; or ruaU' 
berri, the river of fatness or fertility. 

RUSCARROCK. See Roscarrack. 


RUSE, From Ruse in Laneast; from root of Rose, q. v. 

RUSH. See Rose. 

HYALL. Perhaps from ryal, rt/el, royal. 

RYCE, RYSE. See Rees. 


SANDRY. See Saundrt. 
SAPLYN. From sarf-lyUj the serpents' pool. 
SAUNDRY, SANDRY, SONDRY. From sawan-dre, 
.« the dwelling hy the hole in the cliff. But these names may 


also be from Alexander ; for Pryce renders Vellan-Saundryy 
Alexander's mill. 

SAYER. From root of Soor, q. v. Treganyan in St. 
Michael Penkevil was anciently the seat of the Sayers. 

SCABEBIUS. Scawen translates this name, " sweepers 
or sweeping ;" and gives as the arms of the family, three 
broom besoms. Polwhele translates acdberiaa^ "a barn." 
If so, it comes from root of Skyburiow, q. v, 

SCARDON. From car-don, the rocky hill. 

SCOWN. From a place of the same name; from scauan^ an 
elder-tree. Hals derives the word scauan from Gr. cxojSfg/Xr, 
samhucuSf ehulus, the elder-tree ; and he says that, suitably 
to its name, this family has for its arms, ''Argent, a scawen, 
or elder-tree, vert." The Scawens anciently dwelt at Mil- 
linike in St. Germans. 

SC06ELL. This family have flourished for many gene- 
rations in Cornwall and Devon. The first on record is 
Thomas de Scobbahull, sheriff of Devonshire in 1291. The 
name is also found written Scobhull, Scobhill, Scobbel, 
Scobel, Schobell, Scobhall, Shovel, and Scoble, and, ac- 
cording to Hals, signifies in Cornish the broom-plant. I 
doubt much its Cornish origin, and think it may be the 
same as Scovell (H. R. De Scoville, De Scovile), from 
Escoville, now Ecoville, arrond. Caen, Normandy. 

SCORSE. From korsen, a reed, stalk ; in composition, 
kors. Cf. the local name Penkors. There is a place called 
Scoresham in Launcells. 

SCOWEN, SCOWN. See Scawan. 

SEELEG. See- Silk. 

SELDON. As a Cornish name, from BeUdoriy prospect hill. 


See Silk. 

SERPELL, SERPLE. Sarf-pol would mean the set- 
pents' pool ; but this name may also be corrupted from 
St, Petronell. " The manor of Whitestone is called in 
Domesday Witeston. In 12 Edw. L it is denominated 
Wilston and St. Petnell, which is thought to be a corrup- 
tion of St. Petronell. In 3 Hen. IV., John de Cobbleham 
held one fee in Wiston and Sepeknol." 

SILK. Some deriye this name from the parish of Silk- 
Willoughby, co. Lincoln. The name, which is found writ- 
ten Silke, Selke, Seeleg, Selioke, Sellek, Selleck, Sellick, is 
probably of Cornish origin, from sellick^ sillick, in open 
view, remarkable, conspicuous, from sely sily ml, W. sylly^ to 
look or behold : whence the local name Crugsillick, the 
barrow in open view ; and perhaps the surname Tresilian. 

SKEWES, SKEWIS, SKEWYS. From Skewes (for- 
merly Skewie) in Crowan, or Skewes (formerly Skewys). 
in Cury. These names signify a shady place, from skez^ a 
shade or shadow. John Skewys was sheriff of the county 
in the 12 Hen. VIII. Hence also the names Skewish, 
Skuse, and Skues. 

SKEWISH. From Great Skewish in St. Wenn, 
which belongs to the family. ^' One of the family was an 
author at a period so early as the reign of Henry the Sixth, 
when he compiled an abridgment of the Chronicles, and the 
Wars of Troy ; but in all probability the work has never 
been printed, since it is not noticed by Warton, nor is the 
author's name to be found in the catalogues of our public 
librai'ies." (D. Gilbert.) See Skewes. 

SKUES, SKUSE. See Skewes. 


SKYBTJRIOW. From akiberioy skiberiowt, the barns. 
Hence Skiberion in Mawgan, and the surname Scaberius, 

SOADY, SODDY. From aog-y sug-ty, the moist or wet 

SODEN, SOWDEN. From aog-dm, the moist or wet 
hill. Lower refers Soden to Sudden, which he says is a 
known corruption of Southdean, through Soudean. 

SONDE Y. See Saundrt. 

SOOR. From sair^ a sawyer ; whence the word aair' 
pren, a woodman, carpenter. 

SOWDEN, See Soden. 

SPARNON, SPERNON. From speman, a thorn. " The 
family became extinct on the death of a gentleman in the 
medical profession at Lostwithiel ; and the property was 
sold about fifty years ago." (Z). Gilberty 1838.) 

SPERNON. See Spaknon. 

SPERRACK. This name may be from speman, a thorn. 
Tonkin says Trigantan (in Creed) belongs to the family of 
Sperrack ; and there is a place called Sparnock in Kea. 

SPETTIGUE. This is said to be an old Cornish 
£Ekmily ; but it is doubted if the Spettigues were not origin- 
ally from another part of England. Lower says it is '^a 
Cornish local name, place unknown." The last part of the. 
name may be the same with that in Killigrew and Petti- 
grew, q.v. 


SPRY. Burke says that this family, whose name he 
writes var. De Spre, De Spray, De Sprey, Spreye, Sprie, 
Sprye, Spry, Spray, and Sprey, was at a very early period 
seated in co. Devon, where several places bear the 
designation in its more ancient spelling, as Spreyton, Sprie- 


ton or Spryeton, Spray or Sprey, and Sprye Comb. Gil- 
bert (quoting Hals) says: ^^spry, sprey, spray is Coroish, 
and signifies a sprout, branch, sprig, twig, split, or slip of 
any matter or thing." " In the dialect of Somerset, and in 
the United States, spry means nimble, active, smart," says 
Lower. If of Cornish origin, the name would corrupt from 
that of Prye, q. v, 

SPUR. This name may be an abbreviation of Butspur 
in LauDcells ; from bos-ber, the short dwelling. Spour and 
Spoure are perhaps the same name. " The arms of Spour 
are. Gules, on a chevron Or, a rose of the first between 
two mullets or spur rowells Sable pierced." But see 



TALBOT. Lower says this family traces, sine hiatu, to 
the great Domesday tenant, Richard Talebot ; and that the 
Marches of Wales appear to have been, the original seat, 
but that the name is not territorial, being never prefaced 
with De, A talbot, in heraldry, is a hunting-dog. Dr. 
Johnson defines it a hound ; and says, though incorrectly, 
that it is borne by the house of Talbot in their arms. 
Several of the Talbot family have been sheriffs of Cornwall, 
and the name may possibly be derived from locality. " Tal- 
bot (in Probus), which is an abbrevia^tion of Haleboat, is a 
rock called Ha-le-boate Rock ; wherein, to this day, are seen 
many great iron rings, whereunto boats have been tied, 
although there is now no show of an haven, but only a 
little brook running through the valley into a branch 


of the river Fall." (See Norden^ p. 61 ; also D. Oilbert, 
iii. 361.) 

TALEEN. See Tallent. 

TALL. From taly high, eminent. 

TALLAGE. " The name is found at Penryn and at St. 
Austell, and also at Norwich, where a branch settled about 
1750. A place near Penrjn is called Tallack's Style. It 
is doubtless Celtic and local. There is a place in Breck- 
nockshire called Talack-Dhu." {Lower,) Pryce renders the 
Cornish tallack, tallicky talhchy highly placed, a garret. (Cf. 
Botallack and Retallack.) Tallick is no doubt another 
form of the name. 

TALLARD. Tallard is the appellation of a comm. and 
town of France, dep. H. Alps ; but the Cornish name may 
be from tal-ard, the high front or promontory. Hence 
perhaps Tallat. 

TALLAT. See Tallard. 

TALLENT. From Talland in West hundred; from tal- 
Ian, the high church. Hence, by corruption, the surnames 
Tailing, Taleen, Tellam, Tellan. 

TALLERVEY. See Tolleevet. 

TALLICK. See Tallack. 

TALLING. See Tallent. 

TANNAHILL. From ten-hale, for tren-hale, the dwelling 
by the moor. 

TELLAM, TELLAN. See Tellant. 

TENCREEK. From Tencreek in Creed, which Hals 
derives from ^^ten-creeky or tene-cruck, the fire bank or 
tumulus, viz., the sepulchre of one interred the/e before the 
6th century, whose body was burnt to ashes by fire, ac- 
cording to their accustomed manner of interring the dead ; 


and his bones and ashes laid up in an urn or earthen pot, in 
a bank, or barrow, or tumulus, upon some part of the lands 
of this barton." But the name means rather the dwelling 
by the barrow or hillock ; from tre-, treU'Cryh, 

THRISCUTT. See Truscott. 

TICE. See Tte. 

TIDDY. See Tthyddt. 

TIERS (De), TIES (De). See Tte. 

TILLIE. Pryce translates Pentillie, "the master's, or 
head of the family ;" and Borlase renders the word pentilm^ 
master of the family ; but Pentillie in Pillaton probably 
derived the last part of its name from Sir James Tillie, 
who left the property to his sister's son, Mr. James Woolley, 
who took the name of Tillie. 

TINTEN. From Tinten, in the parish of St. Tudy, 
possessed by the family up to the 14th century, when the 
heiress married Carminow. (Lower.') From tiri'tcm, the 
under fortress ; or tin^den^ the castle on the hill. Tonkin 
says John de Tinten held one fee Mort. (of the honour of 
Morton) in Tynten, and in Trewinneck, 3 Hen. IV. 

TOLCARNE, TOLCEARN. From Tolcarn in Gwen- 
nap, or Tolcarne in Madron ; and from other places so 
named. Pryce deriyes the name Tolcarne from Tolcarne 
in St. Just ; which he translates, the stone with a hole 

TOLEMAN. See Tolman. 

TOLER. See Toller. 

TOLL, TULL. From toll, a hole. There are several 
places in Cornwall compounded of toll ; as Tolcarn, Tol- 
garrick, TolguUow, Tolvan, &c. 

TOLLER. This name may sometimes be from toller^ a 


man that superintends tin-bounds ; " so called," says Pol- 
whele, '' because bounds are terminated bjr holes (foZ, a 
hole) cut in the earth, which must be renewed and risited 
once in a year, or because he receives the tolls or dues of 
the lord of the soil." Toler may be the same name. 

TOLLERVEY, TALLERVEY. From tolUar-vy, the 
hole by the river or water ; or tal-ar-vy, the high place 
upon the river. 

TOLMAN. From Tolvan in Constantino ; from toll- 
van, the high stone ; or toll-Tnaen, the stone with a hole. 
Gf. the names Toleman, Dolman, Dollman. 

TOLMIE, TOLME. From toll-vr/, the hole by the 

TOLPUTT. From toll-bod, the dwelling by the hole. 

TOLVERNE. From Tolvem in Philleigh. Pryce 
renders Tolvorne, the foreigner's hole or high place ; and 
Tolforn, the oven's mouth or hole (fom). 

TOWAN. From Towan in lUogan ; also the appella- 
tion of other places. The name means heaps of sand, or 
sand-banks ; sometimes simply a hillock ; and, according to 
Gwavas, also a plain, a green or level place. 

TRAER. See Trehaib. 

TRAGO. Same as Treago, q. v. 

TRAHAIR. See Trehair. 


TRAIN. See Trehane. 

TRAINOR, TRAYNOR. From tre^noer, the valley 
famous for land ; or tren-our, the golden valley. 

TRANMER. From tra^n-mer, the dwelling upon the 
sea (coast), or by the lake or water ; or perhaps another 
orthography of Tremear, q, v. 


TRANNACK. See Teenaco. 

TRATHAN. From Tretane in St. Kew ; from tre-tan, 
the under town. Hence, by corruption, Fratban. 

TRAVELLER. The same name as Trevailor, q. v, 

TRAVENER. See Tkeveneb. 

TRAVIL. See Thetill. 

TRAVIS. See Tbetisa. 

TRAYHEARNE. See Trehern. 

TRAYNOR. See Tbainor. 

TREAD WELL. See Tredudwell. 

TREA60. Hals says tbis name was anciently De 
Treago, from Tre-ago, or Tre-agbo, in Crantock ; and he 
gives an absurd etymology. The name is probably from 
Tre^Iago, the dwelling of lago, or James. See Jaoo. 

TREAGUS. See Tregoz. 

TRESE. Hals says, *^ In the parish of Blisland, somewhere 
liveth Trese, Gent. The name Tres or Treas is Corn.-Brit., 
and signifies ' the third,' and was a name taken up in memory 
of the third son or person of the family from whence he was 
descended, and is derived from the same Japhetical origin 
as tpirogf teriiuSy ' the third,' as the Latin tres ; and Treas is 
also the third in the Scotch and Irish tongues."! The name 
is probably from tre^yZy the place for corn. The manor of 
St. Gennis was for some time the property of Treise, and 
Trenant was at one time in the possession of Sir Christo- 
pher Treise. Lysons says the manor of Tremayne in East 
hundred belonged to the family of Treise, whose heiress 
brought it to that of Morshead ; and, says D. Gilbert, it 
has since passed by sale to Mr. John Joliffe. 

TREASURE. See Tresahab. 


TREATS. See Trsais. 

or Trebarfut, in the parish of Poundstock, the ancient seat 
of the family, until the extinction of the elder line in 1633. 
The name is from tr$'bar'Jiity the town over the vaults or 
graves (Juty a vault, W. mut) ; tre-har^vor^ "Vcrdhy the town 
bj the highway ; or from tre^Barfoot, the dwelling of Bar- 
foot or Barford. The family bore for arms three bears' feet. 

TREBABTHA. From Trebartha in the hundred of 
East, which Frjce renders the high or wonderful place. 
The name may also be from tre-wartha^ the higher town or 

TREBELL, TREBLE. From Trebell in Lanivet, or 
Trebila near Boscastle ; from tre-hely the fair town or place. 
There is a place named Trebellan near Cubert ; and Trebell 
is Ihe name of a Mining Company. Trible, Tribbel, 
Tremble, and Trimble are different spellings of the same 

TREBERSET. From Trebursye, or Trebersey, in 
Petherwin ; from tre^bur'Suey the dwelling on the black 
eminenee ; or tre-Buraey, the dwelling of Bursey. 

TREBILLIOGE. From Trebilcock in Roche; from 
tre-Wilcocky the dwelling of Wilcock, a diminutive of Will., 
for William. 

TREBILLIOGE. See Trebiloock. 

TREBISKY. From Trebisken in Cubert ; from root of 
Tregusking, q, v. 

TREBLE. See Tbebell. 

TREBLECOCK. See Trebiloock. 

TREBY. From Trebigh, a manor in the parish of St. 



Ive or Eve, anciently in the possession of the family ; per- 
haps from tre-bigharif the little town. Hence Trewbj, 
Truby, and perhaps Trimby. 

TKECARNE. From tre-came, the dwelling near a heap 
of rocks. '^ The heiress married Glynn of Glynn in this 
county." (Oilhert,) 

TRECARBELL. From Trecarrell in Lezant parish, in 
East hundred, where the family are said to have been seated 
before the Conquest. The name may simply mean the 
dwelling of Carrell, t. e, Carolus or Charles. The arms of 
the family are, Ermine, two chevrons Sable. 


name the town of the old man {coik), Qu. from tre-y tres- 

coit'ick, the dwelling in the woody place. Tregothick is 

also a surname. 

TREDEGAR. The same as Tregear ; or from Tred- 
car, the town by the rock. 

TREDENEY. Probable corruption of Tredinnick, q. v. 

in the parish of Probus, the town or dwelling of Denham or 
Dinham ; perhaps the baronial family of Dinham of Corn- 
wall and Devon. This is said to be confirmed by the fact 
that both families bear in their coat-armour Justls (which 
are far from common in heraldry), the noble family carrying 
them in fesse, the gentle one in bend, Dinham or Denham, 
as a Cornish- Saxon compound, would translate the fortified 
dwelling. Dinham however is the name of a family in 
Monmouthshire, and Denham that of parishes in Suffolk and 
Bucks. Cf. Cardinham. 


TREDERRICK. From tre^DerricJt, the dwelling of 


Derrick, «. c, Theoderick ; or from tre-derricky the dwelling 
of the sexton or grave-digger. 

TREDETHY. From Tredeathy in St. Maben, etymolo- 
gically the same as Trethewy. 

TREDIDON. From the barton of Tredidon in St. 
Stephen's, near Launceston, formerly the seat of the family, 
but now or late of George Francis Collins Browne, Esq. 
The last part of the name may be that of the owner ; or the 
whole name may be from tre-dyddan, the pleasant habitation 
(W. dyddari) ; or from tre-didoriy the dwelling by the turf 
(W. didon), 

TREDINHAM. See Teedbnham. 

TREDENICK, TRENPINNICK. From Tredinnick, an 
estate in the parish of St. Breock, which, according to 
Lysons, was inhabited by the family until the extinction of 
the elder male line, before the year 1531. Tredinnick is 
also the name of places in Duloe, Landrake, Lanhydrock, 
Lanivet, Luxulion, Newlyn, and St. Issey. The name is 
from tre-denick, -thenick, the hilly dwelling or place. 

TREDREA, TREDREE. From Tredrea in the parish 
of St. Earth ; from tre-draith, the gravel or sand town, or 
the dwelling on the sandy shore. Tonkin translates the 
name " the thoroughfare town," from its lying on the way 
from Trewinnard to the church. 

TREDUD WELL. From Tredudwell, called by Gilbert 
Treegoodwell, in Lanteglos-by-Fowey. The name was 
perhaps originally Tretydvil, the town of Tydfil or Tudfil, 
the Welsh saint of that name. Tydvil or Tudfyl the 
Martyr, daughter of Brychan, Prince of Brycheiniog, in the 
fifth century, gave the distinguishing appellation to 

I 2 


MerthTT Tydvil in Wales. Treadwell and Tredwell would 
seem to be the same name as Tredndwell. 

TREDWELL. See Tbbdudwbll. 

TREDWEN. From tre-gwyn^ -gwydny •widn^ the white 
dwelling. There is Tredwen in Davidstow. 

TREEN. From the manor of Treen in Zennar, ety- 
mologically connected with the neighbouring promontory, 
Trereen Dinas. Plyce renders Treh&n, the summer town ; 
and Trereen, the fortified or fighting place. Tr^rine would 
mean the dwelling by the river ; and trt'rhynj the abode 
by the hill ; but the name may even be from tre-Aeaa, the 
old town. 


TREE AY. See Tbefet. 

TREFELENS. See Tbevbllancb. 

TREFETHEN. A name found in the United States ; a 
corruption of Trevethen. See Tbevbthan. 

the manor of Trefrize or Trefy*(ii^ Linkinhome) is said to 
have belonged, at a remote period* to the family of Trefey. 
But see Tbbfbt. 

TREFFEY. See Tbbpbt. 


Gorran, the French town or dwelling ; or from Trewronick 
in St. Alleu, the town of frogs or lizards [wronick^ tvronag, 
a frog). Tonkin thinks Trefronick a contraction from tre- 
vor-in-ick, the dwelling in the way to the rivulet. " Allan 
Trevronck was living in great respectability at Trevronck 
in the reign of Edw. III." (C. S. Gilbert.) 



TREFFRYE, TREVRY. From Trefry in Lanhydrock ; 
from trt'/ryy the dwelling on a hill (Jry^ a nose, then a hill; 
vre^ a hill, mountain). From this name we have, by cor- 
rnption, Turffrey, Trefay, Trefey, Treffey, Renfree, Renfrey, 
Renfry, Renphry, Remfry, Remfrey, Remphry, and Refry. 

TREFUSIS. From Trefusis in Mylor or Milor ; from 
tre-Jus-eSy tre-foz^es, the walled or intrenched dwelling. 
Tonkin says this family, imagining themselves to be of 
French extraction, gave for their arms, in allusion to their 
name. Argent, a chevron, between three fusees, or harrow- 
spindles, Sable. 

TREGADILLOCK. A probable corruption of Trevad- 
lock, q, V. The family is now merged in the female branch. 
Some say " Tregadillock, cdiaa Trevadillock." 

TREGAGA, or TRESAGA. Hals says this family was 
probably named from Tregaga or Tregage in Ruan Lany- 
horne. There is a place called Tresuggan in St. Golumb 
Major ; perhaps from tre^sugga, the moist or boggy dwelling. 
But see Tbeago. 

Tregagle in the parish of St. Probus ; from tre-gagle, 
^eagle, the dirty town or dwelling.' The Tregagle family 
of Trevorder in St. Breock is extinct. To this family 
belonged John Tregagle, an arbitrary magistrate and local 
tyrant of the days of the Stuarts, whose ghost still hauats 
the wilds of Cornwall. ** One of this family having become 
unpopular," says D. Gilbert, *' the traditions respecting a 
mythological personage have been applied to him. The 
object of these tales of unknown antiquity was, like 'Orestes, 
continually pursued by an avenging being, from whom he 
could find refuge only from time to time by flying to the 


cell or chapel on Roach Rock, till at last his fate was 

changed into the performance of a task to exhaust the water 

from Dozmere, with an implement less adapted, if possible, 

for its appropriate work than were the colanders given to 

the daughter of Danaus : 


Hoc' ut opinor, id est 8bto florente pnellas, 

Quod memorant, laticem pertusum congerere in yas, 

Quod tamen ezpleri nulla ratione pote8t[ur]. 

Tregagle is provided simply with a limpet-shell having a 
hole bored through it, and with this he is said to labour 
without intermission ; in dry seasons flattering himself that 
he has made some progress towards the end of his work ; 
but when rain commences, and the ^ omnis effusus labor * 
becomes apparent, he is believed to roar so loudly, in utter 
despair, as to be heard from Dartmoor Forest to the Land's 

TREGALLES. See Tregelles. 

TREGANELL. See Tregonwell. 

in Lanivet ; from treg*n'Woon^ the dwelling on the down or 

TREGANYAN. From treg-an-jein, the cold dwelling. 
Pryce renders Treg^anAany the cold dwelling, or on the sea- 
shore. Tonkin derives Treganyan from tre-gan-f/than, the 
furzy town on the downs. 

TREGARE. See Tregeare. 

From Tregarrick in the parish of Roche, formerly the seat 
of this family, of which John Tregarrick was M.P. for 
Truro, temp. 7 Rich. II. Tregarrick is also the appellation 
of places in Menheriot and Pelynt. The name is from tre- 


carrichy the dwelling bj the rock ; or the same as Tregerrick 
or Tregery, which Pryce renders the green or fruitful place, 
or the dwelling of love. 

From Tregarthen in Ludgvan ; from treg-ar^den^ the dwell- 
ing upon the hill ; or treg-arth-en, the dwelling upon the 
high place. 

TREGARTHIAN. From Tregarthian in Gorran, 
where, according to C. S. Gilbert, the family were seated 
temp. Edw. I. or earlier ; from root of Tregarthen, q. v. 

from tre-gasa, the dirtj place (gasaj casa, dirty). Hence the 
names Tregassan and Le Gassick. But see Tseyascus. 

TREGASKING. See Trequsking. 

TREGASKIS. See Tregaskass. 

TREGASSAN. See Tbegaskass. 

TREGAY. See Trbgew. 

TREGEA. From Tregea in lUogan parish ; from tre- 
kea, the enclosed dwelling. But see Trbgew. 

TREGEAGLE. See Tregagle. 

TREGEANv From Tregean in Egloskerry. See 

From Tregeare in the parish of Or o wan, where the family 
were resident as late as 1732. Richard Tregeare of Tre- 
geare was sheriff of the county in 1704. The local name 
is from tre-geare, the green or fruitful place. 

TREGEDICK. A family that dwelt at the manor of 
Tregavethan in Kenwyn. The name is probably the same 
as Tregoddick, q. v. 



6ALLES. From Tregelles in St. Kew, or Tregellas in 
Lndgvan ; from tre-gelli^ the town of hazels ; or tre-kelli, 
the dwelling in the grove. 
TREGENA. See Treoekna* 

TREGENDEB. From tre^n-dour^ the dwelling upon or 
near the water. 

Tregenna in St. Ives, or Tregenna in Blisland ; from root 
of Tregunno, q, r. 
TREGENZA. See Tbkoenzeb. 

TREGENZER. From treg-'n-sair, the dwelling of the 
woodman or carpenter. Hence, perhaps, Tregenza. 
TREGERE. See Tbeobabb. 

TREGERTHY. From treg-ar-thi/, -thewy^ the dwelling 
upon the water. But see Tregubtha. 

TREGEW, TREGUE. From Tregew or Tregue 
(Tregou) in Lansalloes ; according to Hals, the open or 
javelin town. The name is rather from tre-gew-geu^ the 
ifiourishing place. Of. the name Tregaj. 

TREGGON. From Tregoon in Alternun, or Tregone in 
Michaelstow^ which formerly belonged to the Mayows, and 
is now or was lately property of Mr. Hockin ; from tre^ 
gUiUy the dwelling on the down. 

TREGIAN, pron. Trudgeon. From the manor of Tregjn 
or Tregian in Probus ; or from Tregideon in Cury, which 
Pryce derives from treg-i-gian^ the giant's dwelling. But 
these names, as well as Tregean, Tregion, Tregyon, Trejean, 
Tregideon, Trudgeon, Trudgian, Trugeon, Tregidga, Tre- 
gidgo, Tregido, may also be from tre-CHdeon^ the dwelling 
of Gideon ; or from tre-goony the dwelling on the down. 
Hence perhaps the name Treiagn. But see TBEGtooK. 



TBEGIDGO. From Tregidheo in Creed ; from root of 

TREGIDO. See Tregian. 

TREGILGAS, TREGIL6US. From tre-chil-g^s, the 
dwelling by the ridge of the wood. 

TREGILLIS. See Tregelles. 

TREGION. See Tbegian. 

TREGLAWN. See Treglohan. 

TREGLIDWITH. From Trelidgwith in Constantine ; 
from tre-kledh-wiihy the dwelling on the left breach or sepa- 
ration ; or from tre'lug^unth^ the dwelling by the woody tower. 

TREGLISSAN. From Treglisson in Phillack, inhabited 
for many years by the family of Nichols, who held the free- 
hold ; from tre^glds-an, the green or grey dwelling. 

TREGLOAA. From Trelow in St. Issey, which Pryce 
renders the lousy town ; or from Treloy, which he translates 
the hoary or musty town. A more reasonable etymology 
would be from tre-Zooe, the dwelling by the pool. But see 


TREGLAWN. From tre-glawn, the wool town. But see 

TREGO. The same as Treago, q. v. 

named Tregaddick, Tregoddick, or Treguddick, in South 
Petherwin, the ancient inheritance of the family, who are 
said to have become extinct temp. Chas. I. There is also a 
place called Treguddick in Egloshayle. The name is from 
tre-god'icky the woody dwelling. See also Trecothick. 

TREGONAN. See Tbegoning. 


TREGONEBRIS. From tre-gtin^rds, the dwelling bj 
the great down or common. D. Gilbert (in Newlin) says 
the manor of Degembris (which looks like the same name) 
was ODe of those forfeited bj Francis Tregian, Esq. 


Tregoning in Mawgan in Pjder, Tregonnen in Petherick, 
or Tregonnan in St. Ewe or in Manaccan ; from tre-gonanj 
the dwelling on the downs. Prjce translates Tre-gonin, 
the dwelling enclosed on the common. 

TREGONNING. See Trkgoning. 

Tregonwell, name of places in Crantock and Manaccan. 
Shirley says the pedigree is traced only to the latter 
part of the 14th century. Pollen speaks of them as 
having " builded many places/' and possessed '^ many lands 
and manors before the Norman Conqaest." The name may 
mean the dwelling of Gunnell or Connell ; its ancient pro- 
prietor, Gunnell, is found as a surname. Tre-gHn^-uhdl 
would translate the dwelling on the high down. 

TREGORS. From tre-gors, -korSy the dwelling by the 
gorse. Hence the local name Penkors in St. Enodor. 

TREGORTHA. See Trbgurtha. 


TREGOTHICK. See Trecothick. 

TREGOTHNAN. From Tregothnan in St. Michael 
Penkevil, which Pryce translates the old town on the plain, 
or in the valley {tre^goth-nan). Tonkin renders the local 
name, *' the old town in the valley ; a name suitable to the 
situation of the old house, althoiigh not of the new one." 


The eldest male line of the family became extinct in the 
14th century. 

TREGO W. Hals says, " Trewothike in St. Anthony in 
Kerrier was formerly the lands of Tregow, gentlemen that 
flourished there for several generations in good fame and 
credit till about the middle of the reign of Charles II.;** 
and he renders the name, the wood town. (See Trego w- 
STH.) I derive it from tre^ofy the place of the smith. But 
see Tbeqew. 

TREGO WETH. From tre-govyth, -guydh, ^gyth, -tvyth, 
the dwelling by the wood. 

TREGO YE, or TREGO YES. From an estate so named. 
** The family of Tregoye or Tregoyes ranked amongst the 
nobles of England at the accession of William the Con- 
queror." (Lower, quoting Carew's " Survey of Cornwall.") 
The name is perhaps the same as Tregow or Tregew, q. v, 

TREAGTJS. From tre-cos, -^goose, the dwelling in or near 
the wood. " The first-recorded ancestor of the family (of 
Tregoz), who were ennobled in three branches, was William 
de Tregoz, who in the fifth year of King Stephen had the 
lands of William Peverell of London in farm. His de- 
scendants were much connected with the county of Sussex." 
{Lower,) D. Gilbert gives the local name, Tregoss Moor. 
There are also Tregoss in Roche, Tregoose in Mawgan in 
Meneage, and a place called Trengosse. 

TREGRAHAN. A family now merged in that of Car- 
lyon. From tre-grean, the gravel dwelling. There is a 
place called Tregrenna in Alternun. 

TREGUE. See Tregew. 


TBEGULLAN, TREGULLA. From Tregullan in 
Lanivet. From tre-gol-ariy the holy town or dwelling. 
Prjce renders the local name EngoUan, ^^ the bottom." 

TREGUNNEL. See Treqonwell. 

TREGUNNO. From Tregunno in St. Ewe ; from tre- 
genauy the dwelling at the mouth or entrance, from its 
situation near the downs ; or from tre-gHnnoWy the dwelling 
on the downs. Hence Tregenna, Tregenno, and Tregena. 

TREGURTHA, TREGORTHA. From the manor of 
Tregurtha in St. Hilary ; from tre-gorha^ the town for hay. 

TREGURY. The same name as Tregurtha^ q. v. 
Lysons says that in the parish of St. Wenn is situate Tre- 
gury, Tregurra, or Tregurtha, the seat of a family so called, 
of whom was Michael de Tregury, Archbishop of Dublin, 
who died in 1411. 

name Tregiskey, which Pryce and Polwhele render " the 
blessed town ;'' but grU-kein would also mean " the woody 
promontory ;" and tre-gissy^ ** the woody dwelling." The 
name, however, is more probably from tre^guskySy the shel- 
tered dwelling {guakys^ a covert, shelter). 

TREGYON. See Tbegian. 

tre-hiry the long town ; or tre-heiry the place of battle. 
There is a place named Trehire in Lanreath. 

TREHANE. From Trehane in Probus, or Trehane in 
Davidstow ; from tre-haney the old dwelling ; or, as others 
i^ay, from tre-hdn, the summer town. Hence, by contrac- 
tion, the surnames Train and Drain. 

TREHAR. See Trehair. 

TREHARNE. See Trehern. 


TREHAYABIEE. This name may be from Trevorick 
in St. lesej ; from tre'Vor^ick^ the great dwelling. Hals 
gives a Trehavock in Menherriot, which he renders *^ a place 
for hawks ;" and he says the latter is a surname. But see 

TBEHAWEE. From Trehawk in Menherriot; from 
tre^haugh^ the upper town. Hals says : " Tre-hayock in 
Menheniot — i. e. the hawk town— <-was taxed in Domesday 
(1087) as the yoke-lands of a parish or manor, which is 
now suitably called, after the Cornish English, Tre-hauhe ; 
for that it seems heretofore it was a place notable for 
keeping, mewing, or breeding hawks (or for that those lands 
were held by the tenure of paying hawks to its lord) ; 
from which place was denominated an old family of gen- 
tlemen surnamed de Tre-havJce ; who gaye for their arms, in 
a field Sable, a cheyron between three hawks.** 

TREHEARNE. See Tkeheen. 

HEARNE. From trt'lioamy the iron dwelling. Treheme 
or Trahern is also an ancient Welsh personal name. Tr&- 
hern ap Caradoc was Prince of North Wales, 1073. 

TREIAGN. See Trjsgian. 

TREIAGU. Tonkin giyes a John de Treiagu as sheriff 
17 Edw. n. This may be the same name as Tregew, g. v. 

TREICE. See Trbais. 

TREINEER. See Tbenbab. 

TREISE. See Tbbais. 

TREJAGO. See Treaqo, 

TREEELLERN. From Trekelleam in Lezant; from 
tre-kelin, the dwelling by the hoUy-tree. 


TREKYNIN. From tre-kynin^ the abode of rabbits. 
Prjce renders Trekinnin, the town of leeks or strife 
{hinin^ a leek). Hals translates Trekjning in St. Colomb 
Major, the king's, prince's, or ruler's town. 

TRELAGO. From Trelogoe, or Treclogoe, in Advent ; 
from tre-lakka, the dwelling near the well, pit, or rivulet. 

TRELANDER. From tre-Landery the town of Lander, 
q. v.; or tre-lan^dar, the dwelling bj the church oak. 
Hals translates Treland in Keverne, the temple town, or a 
town notable for land. 

TRELASE, TRELEASE. From Trelease, name of 
places in Kea, Ruan Major, and Ruan Minor ; from tre-glasej 
the green dwelling. 

TRELASK, TRELASB^E. Jrom tre-losc, the burnt 
town. There is Trelaske in Peljnt, and Trelaske in 
Cubert ; and Fryce gives a Trelosk in Lanwannick. There 
is also a Treloskin in Cury. 

TRELAWDER. From tre4ader, the dwelling of the 
thief ; or, as Pryce says, the town of the thieves. 

ancient and celebrated family that took its name from the 
barton of Trelawny, in the parish of Alternun ; from ire^ 
lauTij the open or clean town. There is also a place called 
Trelawny (formerly Trelawn) in Pelynt. Under the picture 
of Hen. y. which stood formerly on the gate at Launceston 
was the following rhyme : 

He that will do aught for me. 

Let him love well Sir John Trelawnee. 


And there was an ancient saying in Cornwall, that a 


Godolphin was never known to want wit ; a Trelawny, 
courage ; a Glanville, loyaltj. 

TRELEASE. See Trblase. 


TRELEDDRA. From tre-ledry -Udra^ the town on the 
cliff or steep hill ; or the place for stockings {lydru\ sajs 
Pryce. But see TsELtrBBA. 

TRELEGGAN. From Treleggan in Constantine ; from 
trC'helygan, the dwelling of the willows. 

TRELEGO. From tre-lakka, the dwelling by the rivulet, 
well, or pit. 

TRELIVING, TRELEWAN. From Trelaven or Tre- 
levan in Mevagissey ; " which," says D. Gilbert, " be- 
longed for several generations to the family of- Trewolla, 
of Trewolla in St. Goran ;** or from Trelaven in St. Den- 
nis. Pryce renders the local name Treleven, the open 
or bare place (tre'levm) ; and Trelevan (Mevagissey), the 
dwelling-place above, or on high. The Trelevans held 
Mudgeon in St. Martin's in Meneage. Hence the surname 
Trelevant, mentioned as a surname by D. Gilbert, under 


TRELIVING. See Teblevan. 

Pryce, from tre'loary the moon town ; but perhaps from 
tre'litar, the garden town. 

TRELOOR. See Treloar. 

TRELOWETH, TRELOWTHA. From Treloweth in 
St. Earth ; from tre-loweth^ -lowarth, the garden town. 

TRELOWICK. From Trelewick (mentioned by D. 


Gilbert) in St. Ewe ; from tre-lew-ich^ the dwelling by the 
pool or lake. 

TRELOWTHA. See Tbelowkth. 

TRELUDDERIN. From tre-ladrouy the town of the 
thieves. See Tbelawdeb. 

TRELUDRA, TRELUDRO. Prom Treluddra in New- 
lyn. Prjee writes the local name Treluddero, which he 
renders the miry town of oaks {lu€dy luth^ miry, filth). 
But see Treleddra and Trelawdeb. 

TRELUDRO W. See Tbeludra. 

TRELWNAY. See Trelawnt. 

TRELYNIKE. From Trenlynike in Egles^kerry ; 
from tre'clan'tckf the head of the place of elms. 

TRELYON. From tre^liny the flax or linen place. 
There is Trelyn in Alternun. The name in Welsh might 
translate the dwelling by the streams {tre-llion). 

TREMAIN, TREMAINE. From Tremaine In Eaat 
hundred ; from root of Tremayn, q. v. 



TREMARNE, TBEMEARNE. From tre-warm, the 
dwelling by the alder-tree. 

TREMAYN, TREMAYNE. From Tremayue in 
Crowan, said to mean the town on the shore or sea-coaet ; 
but perhaps rather from tre'mean^ 'mm, the stone town, 

TREMBANT. From tre-ban, the dwelling on the hill, 
or the high dwelling. There is Trebant water in TaUand 
parish ; and Trembant and Trebant are the same word. 

TREMBARTH. From Trebartha, which Pryce renders 
the high or wondei*ful town. 



iren-bathy the town for money ; or tren^hedh^ 'beth, the grove 
dwelling. There is a Trembath in Maddern. 

TREMBLANT. A corruption of Trembant, q. v. 

TREMBLE. See Trebell. 

TREMBLETH. See Tremblett. 

TREMBLETT, TREMBLETH. From the local name 
Trembleth, which Pryce renders the wolfs town (tren-bleit). 
Hals says, " Trembleigh, Trembleth, alias Trembleith, alias 
Tremblot (in St. Ervan), synonymous terms, signifies the 
wolf's town. From this place was denominated an ancient 
family of gentlemen, who, suitable to their name, gave the 
wolf for their arms." Hence the surnames Tremlett, 
Trimlett, Trumlett, and Tremle. 

TREMBRAZE. From Trembraze in the parish of 
Leskeard ; from tre-, tren-brds, the great dwelling ; or tren- 
prds, the dwelling in the meadow. 

TREMEAN. From root of Tremayn, q. v. 

TREMEAR. See Tbemeer. 

meer in Lanteglos by Fowey; or Tremere in Lanivet ; from 
tre-mer, the great town. Hence the names Trimmer and 


TREMELLAN. From tre'mellin^ the mill town; or tre- 
melyn, the yellow dwelling. 

HEER, TREMANHEERE. From Tremenheere in 
Ludgvan ; from tre-nxen-hiry the stone town. 

TREMERE. See Tremeeb. 

TREMEWAN. From Tremoane in Pillaton ; from ire- 



meauj the stone dwelling. Hence Fremewan. See Tre- 


TREMILLING. See Tremelling. 

TREMLE, TREMLETT. See Tremblett. 

TREMOGH. From Tremough or Tremogh in Mabe ; 
from tre-mSh, the hog's place ; " and," says Gilbert, " the 
street leading to Tremogh from Penryn is now called 
Pig's Street." Tremogh might also translate the smoky 
dwelling (tre-mog). 

TREMOR. From Tremore or Tremere (in Domesday, 
Tremer) in Lanivet ; from tre-veor, the great dwelling or 

TRENACO. From Trenake in Pelynt, or Trenaig in 
St. Breock ; from tren-hagh, the upper dwelling ; or tre- 
neage, the mossy dwelling. Hals gives a Trenake in 
Talland ; and Polwhele a Treneage in St. Stephen's in 
Brannel. which he renders the mossy dwelling ; and Tre- 
venege in St. Hillary, which he translates the dwelling of 
moss, mossy house. Pryce renders Trenneage, the mossy 
or thatched dwelling, or the deaf town ! Hence the name 

TRENAMAN, TRENEMAN. From tren-maen, the 
stone town ; or from Trenewan in Lansalloes ; from tren- 
oan, the lamb's cot ; or treu'wan, the high dwelling, or the 
dwelling on the hill. 

TRENANALL. See Trenhail. 

TRENANCE. From Trenance, the name of places in 
or near Issey, Mawgan in Pyder, Newlyn, and Quethiock ; 
from tre-nansy the dwelling in the valley. The arms of 
Trenance are three swords, in allusion to their name, by 
some thought to be a corruption of Triensis. 


Trenarren in St. Austell, which was the property of Samuel 
Hext, attorney-at-law. Hals says Trenaran means " the still 
lake, leat, creek, cove, or bosom of waters." I should rather 
derive the name from tren-arth-auy the dwelling on the height. 

TRENAWICK. From root of Treonike, q. v. 

TRENBATH. See Trembath. 

TRENCER. From tren-kery the dear or pleasant dwelling. 

TRENCREEK. From Trencreek in Blisland; or Tren- 
crick in St. Genuys ; from tren-creeg, the dwelling by the 
creek; or tren-cryk, the dwelling by the barrow. 

TRENCROW. From tren-crow, the dwelling of or by 
the cross. 

TRENDALL. From tren-deall, the dwelling liable to 
be submerged (diel, dyel^ deall^ a deluge) ; tren-dal, the 
dwelling of the blind man ; or tren-dSl, the dwelling in the 
dale. There is Trendeal in Ladock. 

dotir, the dwelling by the water ; or tren-dar^ the oak 
dwelling. But all three names may be the same with 
Tredrea, q. v, 

TRENDINNICK. See Tredinnick. 

TRENEAR, TREINEER. From Trenear in Crowan ; 
or Treneer in Madron. Probably the same with Trenery, q, v, 
Trener is found in the Directory of Devonshire. Trenner is 
also a surname. 

TRENEMAN. See Trenaman. 

TRENER. See Trenear. 

TRENERY, TRENERRY. From tren-er, the eagle 
town ; or tren-earth, the high town ; or perhaps rather from 
tren'here, the long town; 

K 2 


TRENESST. From tren-Issetf, the dwelliDg of St Issey. 
There is the parish of St. Issey in Pjder hundred, and 
Tresinny in Advent. 

TRENGOFF, TRENGOVE. Some translate this 
name, the strong smith ; but it means rather the smith's 
dwelling (tren-goff). Hence, by corruption, Trengrove. 

TRENGONE. From tren-g^n, the dwelling by the down 
or common. Carew says that Trengone, from living at Nance, 
took the name of Nance. 

TRENGORE. From Trengare in St. Gennys ; from 
tren^gearey -guer, the green or flourishing town. Tregear is 
the name of places in Crowan, Ladock, and Mawgan in 
Meneage ; and there is Tregeare in Laneast. 

TRENGOVE. See Tbengofp. 

TRENGREENE. From the manor of Trengreene or 
Tregoryon in St. Blazey ; from tren^rean, the dwelling by 

the gravel (pits). 

TRENGROUSE. From tren-guarhaz, the town on the 
summit ; or tren-croua, the dwelling by the cross. 

TRENGROVE. See Trengopf. 

ANALL. From Treuale in the pai*ish of Tintagel ; from 
tre^n-hale, the dwelling by the moor ; or tren-hail, the boun- 
tiful or great town ; or perhaps rather from Trenhayle 
in St. Earth ; from tren-Haiky the dwelling by the Haile or 
salt-nvater river. Hals says, ** Trenhayle in St. Earth (the 
stout, strong, or rapid river) gave name and original to an 
old family of gentlemen, from thence denominated Tren- 
hayle, whose sole inheritrix, temp. Edw. III., was married 
to Tencreek." 

TRENHEALE. See Trenhail. 


TRENNER. See Trenear. 

TRENORREN. See Trenarren. 

TRENOUTH. See Trenowith. 

TRENOW. From Trenow, which Pryce renders noisy 
town {rww, noise). But see Trenowith. 

NOWTH. From Trenowith, an estate in the parish of 
Probus, where dwelt, in 12 Edw. III., Michael de Trenowith, 
one of the knights of Cornwall (there is Trenouth in Luxu- 
lion, and Trenoweth in Crowan and Gwinnear) ; from tre- 
noweth, the new town ; or tre-noth, the bare or exposed 
dwelling. Cf. the name Trenow. 

TRENWITH. From Trenwith in the parish of St. Ives, 
where the family flourished for many centuries ; from tre- 
enwith, the dwelling among ash-trees. The family name 
was originally Bayliff. 

TREONIKE. Hals says, " Treon-ike (Sax.-Cornish) in 
St. Allen, trees on the lake, spring, leate, or bosom of 
waters ; or from tre-on-ikey the town or tenement situate on 
the lake or river of water ;" but the name might also be from 
tre-gun-icky the dwelling in the down place. Trewinnick 
means the dwelling on the marsh ; and there is a Trennick 
in Gorran. 

TREPESS. From tre-vez, the dwelling in the meadow 
or open field. 

TRERELLEVAR. From tre-le-vary the dwelling by the 
great place ; or tre-rhyll-veor, the dwelling by the great 

St. Allen, which Pryce renders " the town on the decline 
of the hill." He gives also the verb reese, to flit or slide 


awaj, to rush out, and several local names derived there- 
from. The name, however, may simply mean " the dwelling 
of Rice." 

TEERIZE. See Tberice. 

TRERY, TREURY. From tre-vry, the town on the hill. 
TRESADERN. From Tresodren in Ruan Major, or 
Tresadarne in St. Columb Major, which Pryce renders the 
strong town {pre^sadam^ for cadam^ strong). Hals, speak- 
ing of Castell-an-Dinas in St. Columb, says, " Moreover, 
contiguous with this castle, are tenements of lands or fields, 
named Tre-saddame, that is to say, god Saturn's town, a 
place where the god Saturn was worshipped by the soldiers, 
who probably had their temple or chapel here before 
Christianity " ! See D, Gilbert, i. 219. Hence Tresidden, 
Tresider, Tresidder, ^Tressider, Treseder, Treziddar, Tre- 

TRESAGA. See Tregaga. 

TRESAHAR. From Tresare ; from tre-sair^ the wood- 
man's or carpenter's town. Hence no doubt the surname 

TRESAWELL. From tre-sawell, the healthy dwelling 
(saw-ell, that giveth health, healthful). Sawle is a sur- 

TRESAWNA, TRESONNA. From tre-sawan, the 
dwelling near the mere or sea-gate. 

TRESCOTHICK. See Treoothick. 

TRE SCOTT. See Truscott. 

TRESE. See Tbeais. 

TRE SEAN. From Tresean in Cubert ; from tres-htdn^ 
the old dwelling, or the dwelling by the bay, port, or haven. 
Pryce renders Reseven, Roseyhan^ the plentiful vale. 


TRE SEDER. See Tbbsadern. 

TRESEVEAN, From Treyesean in Gwennap ; from 
treS'Vean, the little town. 


TRESILIAN, TRESILLIAN. According to some, 
this name means place for eels, or in open view {sel, sil^ 
8ul, a view, prospect) ; but I am inclined to think the local 
name may have had its appellation from St. Silian or Sulien ; 
whence the parish of St. Silian or Salien, co. Cardigan, in 

TRESITHNEY. Perhaps the old name of Sithney in 
Kerrier hundred. The name Sithney is said to be a cor- 
ruption of St. Midinnia, the tutelar saint of the place. Pol- 
"whele renders Sithney {sith'-ney), the bishop's land. 

TRESIZE. See Tbeziese. 

TRESKEWIS. From tre-shez, the dwelling in the shady 

TRESONNA, See Tbesawna. 

TRESSIDER. See Tresadern. 

TRESTAIN. From Trestain in Ruan Lanihome ; from 
tre^stean, the tin town. 

TRESTRAIL. Pryce renders Tre-strail, the town for 
mats made of sedges or rushes ; or the tapestry town. 
Strail signifies tapestry, also a mat. 

TRETGOTHNAN. From root of Tregoning, q. v.' 

TRETHAKE. From Trethake in Lanteglos-by-Fowey; 
from tre-tegy thek, the fair or pleasant town. 

TRETHALL, TRYTHALL. From Trethale in 
Crowan, or Truthall in Ludgvan ; from tn^t-hale, the dwell- 
ing by the moor, or treH-hdly the dwelling on the hill. 


Pryce renders the local name Truthell, a barren moor 
(truath'kdl) ; or high town (jre-uJial) ; or entrance of the 
moor (treuth'hdl). 

TRETHAWAN. See Trethoan. 

TRETHEARTH, TRETHERDE. From tret-arth, the 
lofty dwelling. Hence the village of Earth in Carminow 
in Mawgan ; from arthy high, loftj. 

TRETHERDE. See Tretheabth. 

TRETHERFE. See Trethurffe. 

TRETHERIS. From Tretherls in St. Allen ; from tre- 
thres, the barren dwelling ; or treH-ar-iSy the dwelling by 
the corn. Hals says there were extant at Tretheris the 
walls and ruins of an ancient iree chapel and cemetery, 
built perhaps by the bishops of Cornwall and Exon, when 
they resided at the contiguous Lanher. 

From Trethewey in Ruan Lanihorne, or Trethewy in 
Lanivet, or Trethevy in South Petherwin. Pryce renders 
Trethewy, the town by the water, or the holy town by the 
water {deu, God ; thour^ a river, brook ; gy, vy, wy, water, 
river, brook). These names may also be from tre-thew-yy the 
dwelling by the dark water : or from tre-Dewy, the town of 
David. Hence the name Trewethy, and, by further corrup- 
tion, Freathy, Freethy, Frethey. 

TRETHINICK. Another orthography of Tredinnick, 
q* V, 

tre-thoivay the dwelling by the water, or tf^et^hedtiy the old 
dwelling ; or perhaps rather from tre-towany the dwelling 
by a heap of sand. Hence the jiames Trethowoam and, by 
further corruption, Prethowan. 


TRETHOSA. From Trethosa, near St. Austell ; from 
tre-thous, the downward town, or tre-thoway the town by the 


TRETHERFE, TRETHYRFE. From Trethurffe in 
Ladoek, where, according to tradition, this family was 
located before the Norman Conquest. The elder line 
ended with John Trethurffe, knight of Cornwall, temp. 
15 Hen. VI. (See D, Gilbert.) The local name may be 
from tret-erf y the brisk, gay, or lively dwelling ; or the last 
part of the name from an early owner. But see Tbeth- 


TRETHYN. From Trethyn in Advent, or Trethyn in 
Altarnun ; from tret-hean, the old dwelling. In William of 
Worcester's Itinerary we find, " Castellum Trethyn dirutum 
in fine occidentalissima CornubisB." 

TRETHYRFE. See Trethurffe. 


TREUILIAN. See Trevelyan. 

TREUISA, TREUSE. See Trbvisa. 

TREURY. See Trery. 

TREVADLOCK. From Trevadlock, formerly Trevad- 
lack, in Lewanick ; perhaps the same name as Trevellack. 
See Trevellick. 

TREVAGES. Tre-uag would signify the dwelling in 
the hollow ; but this name is more probably another ortho- 
graphy of Trevalga, q, v, 

TREVAIL. From tre-velly the well town ; tre-uhaly the 
high town ; or tre-valy the wall or fence town. There is 
Treveal in Cuthbert, and Treveal in Ladoek. 


TREVAILOR. From Trevailler in Madderne ; from 
tre-vailer^ -vatfler, the workman's town. 

TRE VALGA. From the manor of Trevalga (in Domes- 
day, Trevaga or Trevalga) in Lesncwith hundred, which 
Tonkin derives "from trev-alga, the noble house ; alga signi- 
fying noble, as in Inis Alga, an old name for Ireland." 
Pryce more correctly renders Trevalga, Trevalgy, "the 
town of defence, or walled town near the water " {valy gual, 
a wall), 

TREVALLION, TREVALYAN. From tre-gual-an, 
the wall or fence dwelling ; or the same as Trevillion. See 

TREVAN, TREWAN. From truan, truin, truyn, 
trevariy a promontory, lit. a nose ; or from tre-van, the 
dwelling on a hill, or the high dwelling. 

TREVANION. See Tbevannion. 

TREVANNANCE. From Trevannance in St. Agnes. 
Hals gives an absurd etymology. Tonkin writes the local 
name Trevannence, which he translates " the town in a valley 
of springs ;" but the name is rather from tre-voum'Tumcey 
the dwelling in a deep valley. 

TREVANNING. See Trevannion. 

NING ; auc. Treuanian and Treuagnian. The name is 
said to mean a town in a hollow plain or valley {uag^ a 
hollow). [There is a place called Trevanin in St. Breock.] 
Richards (W. Diet.) derives Trefannian from tref-annian; 
from Annian, an ancient proprietor of the land; and he 
says the trea in Cornwall were for the most part only single 
houses, and the word subjoined only the name of a Briton 
who was once the proprietor ; thus, Tref-Erbin, Tref- 


Annian, Tre-Grerens, Tre-Lownydd. There were two 
Bishops of St. Asaph in Wales, named Anianus or Anian ; 
the first of whom, a Cisterciaa monk, was consecrated in 
Nov. 1249, and died in Sept. 1266. The name Anian may 
be from the Brit, eniauni, jast ; whence Benyon or Bunyan, 
i. e., Ap-£niawn, son of Eniawn. 

TREVAR. See Trevor. 

TREVARRICK. From Trevarrick in Gorran ; from 
tre-var-tck, the dwelling upon the creek, brook, or rivulet. 

TREVARROW. See Trevobrow. 

TREVARS. See Trevor. 

TREVARTH, TREVARTEA. From Trevarth in 
Gwennap, or Trevartha in Menherriot ; from tre-varth, the 
high town. 

TREVARTHEN. See Trevarthian. 

TREVARTHIAN. Formerly one of the most distin- 
guished families in the county. They had their name from 
the manor of Trevarthian in the parish of Newlyn, near 
Truro ; from tre'varth^an, the high dwelling. Hence the 
name Trevarthen. 

TREVARTON, TREVERTON. From tre-var-diln, the 
dwelling on the hill. Treverton may also be from tre^veor" 
ton, the dwelling on the great hill. 

Trevalscus in Gorran ; from tre-ffual-ciis, the fenced dwell- 
ing in the wood. The name would also corrupt from Tre- 
gaskass, Tregaskis, q, v. 

TREVAZE. From tre-vdzy the good town ; or perhaps 
rather from tre-mez, the dwelling in the open field. 

TREVE. From <re, tref, a house, dwelling, gentleman's 
seat, village, town. 


Treveal in Cubert, or Treveal in Ladock ; from tre-vealy the 
calves' dwelling. " The name and tribe of Treveale are still 
extant in Roach and elsewhere in Cornwall." (Hals.) 

TREVEAN. From Trevean, name of places in Kea, 
Madron, Morvah, and Newlyn ; from tre-veaUf the little 
dwelling or town. 

TREVEAR. From Trevear in Sennen, or Trevear in 
Gorran ; from tre^vearf the great dwelling. 

TREVEDRA. Pryce renders Tre'vedren, 'Vy-dran, the 
town by the brambly river. 

TREVELLACK. See Trevellick. 

in St. Peran-Sabulo ; from tre-velliny the mill town. Hence 

TREVELLE. See Treveale. 

TREVELLECK. See Trevellick. 

TREVELLES. From Trevellas in St. Agnes. From 
tref-egliz (Arm. %s), the church dwelling. Hals (quoting 
Lysons) renders Trm-elliSy "the son-in-law by the wife's 
town ; or, if from tre-vell-eB^ the well or spring of water 

From Trevellick in Creed, or Trevellick in St. Anthony in 
Meneage ; from tre'velli/Ti'ick, the dwelling by the mill 
stream, or the mill place. Trevallack would signify the 
fenced or walled place. 

TREVELYAN. From an estate in the parish of St. 
Veep, where dwelt, in the reign of Edward L, Nicholas de 
Trevelyan, whose ancestors had possessed the property from 
a still earlier period. (See Lower, quoting Shirley's " Noble 


and Gentle Men.") There is a place called Trevilian 
Bridge in Merthyr. The name is from tre-vylgan, the dwell- 
ing of the seaman {yylgy^ the sea), according to tradition, 
and the arms of Sir John Trevjlian. The name is also 
found written Trevilian, Trevillian, Trevillion, Trevylian, 
Trevyllian, Treuilian, Trivellian. But see Treveltn. 

TREVELYN. From tref-lyn, the dwelling by the 
water ; tre-melyn^ the yellow dwelling ; or tre-velltn, the 
dwelling by the mill. 

TREVENA, TREVENNA. From Trevena in Tintagel ; 
or Trevenna in Creed, or in Mawgan in Pyder ; from tre- 
veariy the stone town. Pryce however renders Trevena, 
-venna, -vennen, -venner, the bees' town, old town, or 
women's town (bennen, a woman). But see Tkevener. 
TREVENAN. See Trevenen. 

TREVEND. From Trewint, name of places in Altemun, 
Landrake, and Menherriot ; from root of Trewin, q, v, 

TREVENEN, TREVENAN. From Trevenen (found 
Trevennen and Tremenen) in Gorran,* which Tonkin 
thinks may mean " the town of birth, in reference to its 
fertility ;" but the name is more probably from the root of 
Trevena, q, v. 

VENER. From tre-mener, the dwelling on the mountain 
or hill. But see Trevena. 
TREVENNA. See Trevena. 
TREVENNARD. See Trewinard. 
TREVENNER. See Trevener. 

TREVENNING. From Trevenning in Michaelstowe ; 
from tref-hen-euy the old dwelling ; tre-guen-en, the downs' 
town ; or tre-gwyn-euy the white town. 


TREVENOR. See Trevener. 

TREVERBYN, TREVERBIN. From Treverbyn in St. 
Austin, or Treverbyn in Probus ; according to Richards 
(W. Diet.), " the town of Erbin," its ancient proprietor ; 
but it may also be from tref-er-^btn, -hyn^ the dwelling on 
the hill. 

TREVERDER. From tre-ver-dower, the dwelling upon 
the water. Hals renders Trevorder in St. Breock, the 
further town, or the one most distant. Polwhele translates 
Trevorder, Trevordour, the town by the great water, or 
on the road by the water. 

TREVERDERN. From Trevydran in Burian ; from 
tre-vedren, the dwelling by the brambly river (ry, a river, 
draen, drane, a thorn). 

TREVERLYN. From tre-ver-lyn, the dwelling upon 
the water (Zyw, pond, pool). But see Treveltn. 

TREVERROW. See Trevorrow. 

TREVERTON. See Trevarton. 

TREVES. See Trevisa. 

TREVETHAN, TREVETHEN. From Trevethan in 
Gwennap, from tre-vethan, the meadow town. According 
to Pryce, this name may also signify the town among trees, 
or the old town ; and he translates Trevethen, the birds' 
town. Treveathan would mean the rich or fruitful town. 

or Trevi thick in St. Ewe, which Hals renders the farmer's, 
rustic's, or husbandman's town. Polwhele renders Trevithick, 
Trevethick, the town in the meadow on the creek ; but it 
is more probably from tre-vythicky the dwelling in the 
meadow place. 

TREVETHNICK. From Trevenethick in Wendron, 


which Pryce renders the great dwelling (tre-uthy-ick) ; or 
from tre-vidn-ick, the dwelling in the meadow place ; or 
trC'tuith'tck, the town among the trees. But see Treveth- 
ICK, Trevithick. 

TREVIADOS. From Treviados, now Treviades, an 
estate in the parish of Constantino, where the family resided 
temp. Edw. III. The name Treviados is said to mean 
" the dwelling by the water that cometh, t. e., the tide ; 
from doz, to come." 

TREVIHEN. Another orthography of Trevean, q. v.; 
or from tre-vyin, the dwelling of stones. 
TREVILIAN. See Trevelyan. 
St. Sennen ; from tre-vy I, the poor town (vyl, vile, base, mean). 
TREVILLIAN. See Trevelyan. 
TREVILLINION. From tre-mllinion, the dwelling by 
the mills. See Tremellan. 

TREVILLION. See Trevelyan. 
TREVILLIZIK. From Trevillizik, afterwards Tre- 
lizike, in St. Earth. Hals saysj "Trevillizik (now Tre-liz-ik) 
signifies the water, gulf, creek-town, as situate upon the 
sea banks or cliff; and Chynoweth, when he built Chy- 
noweth, parted with his old lands and name of Trevillizik." 
Tonkin renders Tre-lis-ick^ a dwelling on the broad creek. 
The name Trevillizik is probably from tref-lisick, the bushy 

TREVINGY. From tre-vean-gy, the dwelling on or 
near the little brook ; or tre'Vynick-gy, the dwelling by the 
stony brook. This surname occurs in the copy of a muster 
book for the parish of Redruth in 1500 : "Regnald Tre- 
vingy doth horse and harness Perkin Jenkin." 


TREVISA, TREVISSA. From Trevissa in St. Enoder ; 
from tre-visay the lower town or dwelling. Gilbert says, 
*' The Trevisa family, who became extinct about the end of 
the seventeenth century, produced John Trevisa, who, at 
an interval of about half a century from John Wickliffe's 
translation, made a yersion of the Bible into English, and 
died in 1470, at the age of eighty-six." From this name 
we may have Travis, Treves, Treeves, Treuse, Treuisa, 
and perhaps also Trewsen and Trewissan (tre-vissan), whence 
probably the name Yissan ; but some of these might also 
translate the intrenched town or dwelling (tre-vose). 

TREVISSICK. From Trevisick in St. Agnes, or Tre- 
visick in St. Austell ; from tre-vy-icky the dwelling by the 
river, Pryce renders Bos-visick, the house near the river's 

TREVITHICK. See Tbevethick. 

TREVTVION. See Trevtvian. 

TREVOR. From tre-vur. the town on the (Roman) 
road ; tre-voTy 'moTj the town by the sea ; or tre-veor, the 
great town. Hence, perhaps, Trevar, Trevars. Trevor is 
also a Welsh name. 

TROVERROW. From Trevorrow in Ludgvan ; from 
tre-uarrahy the higher town ; or from Treveor in Gorran ; 
from tre-veoTy the great town. 

TREVORVA. From Trevorva in Probus ; from tre- 
vor-va, the dwelling at the ford place ; or tre-warthay the 
higher dwelling. Tonkin renders Trevorva, the dwelling on 
the good road (tre'vor-vay va for da)y " but called so, I suppose, 
by the rule of contraries, the road being one of the deepest 
and worst in the whole country ; but which, according to 


the old proverb, is * Bad for the rider, but good for the 
bider,' making amends bj the richness of its soil." The 
same writer says the last of the family had an only daughter 
and heiress, who married — Williams, of Herringstone, co. 

TREVOSE. From Trevosa in St. Petherwin ; or from 
the barton of Trevose in St, Merry n, which Hals translates 
the maid's or virgin's town ; but which is rather from trC" 
vose, the fortified dwelling or town. There is a place 
called Trevoza near Lezant. 

TREVRONCK. See Trefeonick. 

TREVRY. See Treprt. 


TREVYVIAN, TREVIVION Pryce renders the 
latter name, the dwelling by the small water (vy-bian), I 
derive these names from tre-Vyvian, the dwelling of Vyvian. 
There is a place called Trevivian in Davidstow. 

TREWAN. See Trevan. 

TREWARTHA. From Trevartha in Menherriot, from 
tre-wartha, the higher town ; or Trewarth in Leland, from 
tre-warth, the high town. Hence, by corruption, the name 

TREWARTHENICK. From tre-ivar-thm-ick, the 
dwelling upon the high place ; according to Pryce, the 
higher town by the creek or rivulet. 

TREWARVERRELL. From tre-heverel, cheverel, the 
dwelling of the kid. Cf. Penwarverell, and the local name 

TREWAVAS, TREWAVES. From tre-wavas, -gwavas, 
the winterly or exposed dwelling. 



tre-hude^ the dwelling near a haven ; or from tre^Body, the 
town of Body, which seems to be a Cornish surname. 
Charles Trubody, Gent., held Eoseundle in St. Austell ; 
and Treworock in St. Cleer formerly belonged to the family 
of Trubody. From this name are Prewbody and Treebody. 

TREWBY. See Treby. 

translates Treweek, the sweet town ; from week^ sweet. 
D. Gilbert says, " Treweek is known to mean sweet, beloved 
town or village. The Saxon unck is never, I believe, 
lengthened into week" 

TREWEN. From Trewen, a small parish near Laun- 
ceston ; from root of Trewin, q, v. 

TREWENETHICK. From the barton of Trewenethick 
or Trenethick in St. Agnes ; from tre'Witheri'ick, the woody 
dwelling ; or tren-ithen-ick, the furzy dwelling. But see 

TREWERN, TREWERNE. From tre-wem, -werne, the 
dwelling by the alder-tree. 

TREWETHY. See Trethewat. 

TREWHELE. From Trewhele in St. Enodor ; from 
tre-wheelay the dwelling by the works or mines. Hence the 
names Trewheela, Trewhela, Trewhella, Trewilla, Tre- 

TRE WIDDLE. From Trewhiddle, a seat in St. Austell, 
now or late in the possession of T. Sawle, Esq. ; from ire- 
war/del, a dwelling in an open place. . Cf. the local name 
Boswaydel or Boswidle, which Tonkin renders, " a house in 
an open place or one easy to be seen from." 

TREWILLA. See Trewhele. 

TREWIN, TREWINN. From Trewin in Alternun ; 


according to Pryce, from tre-mn, the dwelling on the marsh ; 
but it may also be from tre-wyn, the white or fair dwelling. 

From Trewinard in St. Earth, where the family flourished 
for many generations down to the latter end of the reign of 
Hen. YIII. Hals says the place was taxed in Domesday 
by the name of Trewinerden, t. «., the high, haughty, be- 
loved town, alias Trewmar, u e,, the town of the beloved 
lake or river of water on which the lands are situate, viz. 
the Hayle river. Tonkin, with more reason, renders the 
name, " the town or dwelling on a marsh " (winnich^ a 
marsh). Tre-win-ard would signify the dwelling on the 
high marsh. 

TREWINNICK, TREWINWICK. From tre-winntck, 
the dwelling on the marsh. Tonkin says John de Tinten 
held one fee Mort. [of the honour of Morton] in Tynten, 
and in Trewinneck, 3 Hen. IV. Hals says, " Trewinock, 
now Trewinicke, that is, the beloved lake or spring of 
waters running to the sea " ! 

TREWISSAN. See Trevisa. 

TREWITHAN. From Trewithan in Probus ; from 
tre-withen, the dwelling amongst the trees. The family is 
extinct, but the place and property now belong, or lately 
belonged, to the family of Hawkins. 

TREWOLLA, TREWOOLLA. From TrewoUa (per- 
haps now TrewoUack in Gorran), where the family are said 
to have been resident seven generations before 1620. The 
name is from tre-wolUiy the lower town. 

TREWOOFE. From Trewoofe in Burian ; from tre- 
woof^ the place frequented by blackbirds (from moelhy in 
compos, woelk, woof), Hals says the local name Trewoofe 

L 2 


signifies '^ the town or dwelling of ob-jarn, such as the sail 
spinsters make, in order to be woof, or woven cross the 
warp in pieces of cloth, stuff, or serges, from whence was 
denominated a family of gentlemen named Trewoofe, who, 
out of a mistaken etymology of their name, gave for their 
arms, in a field, three wolves' heads ; whereas try-hleitk^ try^ 
hleit, is three wolves in Cornish." 

TREWORK. From tre-tvork, the dwelling by the work 
or mine. 

TREWORTHEN. From tre-warth-en, the high dwell- 

TREWOTHIKE. Pryce renders Trewothick the noted 
town (wotJi, known). Hals renders Tre-woth-ike (in St. 
Anthony in Kerrier) " the town of the known or familiar 
cove, creek, or bosom of waters ; alias Tre-wood-ike, the 
town of the wood, creek, or bosom of waters." D. Gilbert 
derives Trewothike from tre-werh-ike^ -tck, the town on the 
water or cree. 

TREWREN, TREWRIN. From tre-rhyn, the town on 
the hill ; or tre-reerty the fortified or fighting place. " The 
family of Trewren were seated at Driff, in the parish of 
Sancreet, in 1340." ((7. S. Gilbert.) 

TREWSEN. See Trevisa. 

TREWYTHENICK. From Trewithenike in Cornelly, 
in Powder hundred ; from tre-withen-icky the woody dwell- 
ing. Cf. Trewenethick. 

TREYARD. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert in a 
list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. There is 
a Tregarden in Luxulion ; and Hals says, *' At Tre-garden 
(in Gorran) lived John Tregarthyn," &c. &c. This name 
is from the root Tregarthen. 



TREZEVANT. From tres-van, the hill dwelling ; or 
from Treseveau in Gwennap ; from tres-veauy the little 


place for corn (j/z, iz, «5, &c., all manner of corn, but chiefly 
wheat). There is Tresayes in Roche. 

TRIBBEL, TRIBLE. See Trebell. 

TRIGANCE. From trig-7iancey the dwelling in the 

TRIGG, TRIGGE. From the hundred of Trig, which 
Pryce renders the ebb of the sea, or on the sea-shore ; but 
qy. from trig^ an inhabitant, a dwelling. Hence the names 
Triggs, Drigg. 

TRIG WELL. From treg-uhal, the high town. 

TRIMBLE. See Trebbll. 

TRIMBY. See Treby, 

TRIMMER. See Tremeer. 

TRINDER. See Trender. 

TRINICK. See Trinnick. 

TRINK. From Trink in Leland ; from tren-ick, the 
dwelling by the creek. Cf. Trinnick. 

TRINNICK, TRINICK. From Trennick in Gorran ; 
from tren-ich, the dwelling by the creek ; or corrupted from 
Trewinnick. See also Trink. 

TRIPCONY. From tre-conna, the town on the neck (of 
land) ; or from tre-kyniriy the rabbit dwelling. According 
to some, this name is of Italian origin. 

TRISCOTT. See Truscott. 

TRIVELLIAN. See Treveltan. 


TROANE. From Trewoon in Budock ; from tre-woon^ 
the dwelling on the down. 

TRODEN. A name mentioned by C. S. Gilbert in a 
list of gentlemen who have represented Bodmin. The name 
would corrupt from tre-den^ the hill dwelling. 

TROUNCE. See Trounson. 

TROUNSON, TROWNSON. From tre-rmnaan, the 
888*8 town. There is a place called Goon Rounsan, *^ the 
ass's downs," in St. Enodor. Trounce is a surname. 

TROVERROW. See Trevorrow, 

TROWNSON. See Trounson. 

TRUBODY. See Trewbodt. 

TRUBY. See Trebt. 


TRUEBODY. See Trewbodt. 

TRUEMAN. See Truman. 

TRUGEON. See Tregian. 

TRUMAN, TRUEMAN (in H. R. Treweman). From 
root of Tremain, Tremayn, q» v, 

TRUMLETT. See Tremblett. 

TRUMMER. See Tremeer. 

TRURAN. From tre-ar-ruariy the town upon the river. 
But see Trewren. 

TRUREN. From Truren in Madron. See Trewren. 

TRURO. From Truro, anc. Trivereu, which some 
derive from tre-rhwiei^eUy the town on the rivers (Cenion and 
Allan) ; others from trC'Vur, the town on the (Roman) 
road ; Camden from tri-ru, three streets. Whitaker says, 
"Tre-vereu, Tre-ureu, Treuro, or Truro, the house or 
castle upon the (river) Uro or Uru = to the Vere in Herts." 

TRUSCOTT. From Treuescoit, the appellation of certain 


lands belonging to a manor in the parish of St. Maben or 
Mabin ; from treu-es-coity the dwelling in the wood. Pryce 
renders the local name Turscot, a short or low tower. 
Trezecuet, Trezeguet, are probably the same name as 
Truscott. We have also Trescott, Triscott, and Thriscutt ; 
but Trescott is the name of a hamlet in Staffordshire. 

TRUYAN, TRUYEN. From tre-yan, the dwelling of 
Yan or John ; or tre-yen, the cold or exposed dwelling. 

TRYTHALL. See Trethall. 

TUBBY. A Cornish form of Thomas. According to 
Lower, Tubb, Tubbs, Tubby are from Theobald. 

TULL. See Toll. 

TUNGAY. See Dungay. 

TURFFREY. See Trefrt. 

TYARS, TYAS. See Tye. 

TYER, TYERS, TYARS, De TIERS. From ti, ty, a 
house, which in the pi. would become tiaz, ties, tiez, tyas, 
tyes, tyez (W. teios, cots, cottages). Pryce renders tyor, a 
helliar, thatcher, tiler. Gilbert says Sir Henry le Tyes, 
Lord Tyes, or (as Camden calls him) De Tiers, was lord 
of the manor of Tywarnhaile Tiers in Perran-Zabuloe. 
One of the Tyas families considers itself of Norman origin, 
and says the name is found written Teutonicus. 


TYETH. From ty-etha^ the great house. 

Tyidne, in the parish of Illogan. Pryce renders Te-hidy, 
Ty-idne, the fowler's house, or the narrow dwelliog. Hals 
calls the place Ty-hiddy, alias Ty-lud-y, which latter might 
translate, the house by the miry water {ty-lued-y). 


TYZEER, TYZZER. From ty^sair, the dweUing of the 
woodman, carpenter, or sawyer. Ty-aeera would translate, 
the father's house. 


USPAR. See Vosper. 

USTICK, USTICKE, USTECK. Hals translates 
itatick, usteckf nightingale ; otherwise, fair nightingale (eus- 
tick). Prjce renders Ustick, Ystig, studious, afifectionate, 
learned ; and gives Yuh'sick, or high place. The name is 
most probably derived from locality. Conf. Bosustick, Tre- 


VALLACK. From vallacky valltck, fenced ; from va/, 
gual, a wall or fence. Hence we may have the surname 

VARFULL. From Varfell in Ludgvan ; from veor- 
vol, -gual, the great wall or fence ; or var-val, upon or above 
the fence. 

VARTHA. Perhaps from Higher or Lower Wartha ; 
from warthOy higher. 

VASNOON. From ves-nohan, the meadow for oxen. 

VAUSE. See Vose. 

VAWDEN. See Bawden. 

VEAB. From St. Veep (found written Weep and 
Wepe) in West hundred ; from root of Mabe, q. v. 

YEAR. As a Cornish name, perhaps from vear^ veor, 


VEASE. From vez^ mez, meys^ an open field. 

VEEN. See Vian. 

VELLACOT. From vellan-coit, the mill by the wood. 

nowethy the new mill. Hence, by contraction, the name 

VELLENZER. From vellyn-nancey the mill valley. 

VELLHUISH. See Melhuish. 

varthj the high or highest mill. 

VELLOWETH. See Vellenoweth. 

VENARD. From win-ard, the high marsh. 

VENN. From Venn, name of places in Cardinham, 
Laneast, and Quethiock ; from vean, little ; feUy fedriy an 
end, also a head ; or gueUy a plain, down. 

VENTOM, VENTON. See Fenton. 

VERM AN. From veor-mdriy the great stone. 


VLAN, VEEN. From veaUy little ; or from some local 
name compounded thereof : as Forth- Vyan, the little gate, 
cove, creek, or entrance. But Vian, Veen might also be 
from vytn, vyyn^ pi. of maerhy a stone*; whence Carvynick, 
" the stony town," in Gorran. 

VICE. See Vosb. 

VIDDICKS. See Biddick. 

VIETH. From vy-etha, the great stream. 

VIGO, VIGOE. From wich, a village. There is a 
place named Bosvigo in Kenwyn. 

VINCE. From vince, a spring. There is Trevince in 
Gwennap. Vince would also corrupt from Vincent. 

VINGOE. From win-go^ the little marsh. 


VINICOMBE. From vian-coomb, the little valley; or 
win-coomb, the valley in the marsh. 

VINTER. See Wintour. 

VINTON. Another orthography of Venton ; or from 
phin-todny the little green lay or meadow. 

VISACK, VISICK. See Phtsick. 

VISSAN. See Teevisa. 


VOADEN. See Bawden. 


VODDEN, VODDON. From mod-den, the hill place, 
or the dwelling on the hill ; or perhaps rather from vidhin, 
bidhin, vidn, vethan, a meadow. There is a mine called 

VOGAN. See Boggan. 

VOSE. From vose, a ditch, intrench men t, wall, fortifi- 
cation ; voz, voza, foza, vose, id. ; boza, bose, an intrench- 
ment ; fdz,fds, a wall ; from It, fossa, a ditch, moat, trench. 
Hence probably the names Boas, Boase, Boaz, Bice, Flee, 
Fob, Fobs, Moase, Moysey(?), Vause, Vice, Voase, Voaz, 
Voce, Voice, Vos, Voss, Vossa, Voyce, Voysey (?). 

VOSPER, VESPER, BOSPER. Hals writes the name 
also Uspar, Vospar, and Vospur, and says vosper or vospur 
in British-Cornish signifies " a pure or immaculate maid or 
virgin " ! The name may translate the bare dwelling (vos- 
ber) ; or the great dwelling (bos-ver). There is a place 
called Trevosper near Launceston. 


VOWELL. As a Cornish name, perhaps from wioeZ, 
bald, bare. Of. the Welsh Voel ; from moel, a conical hill, 
literally bare, bald. 


VYVIAN, VYVYAN. "The Vyvians of Truro are 
derived by certain genealogists from one Vivianus Annius, 
a Roman general, son-in-law of Domitius Carbulo." (Quar. 
Rev. c. 11, p. 304.) Others consider the name to be from 
Cornish vyvyan^ to flee. Polwhele, under chuT/vyan, " to 
escape, to fly," says, "Hence Vyvian, flying on a white 
horse from Lyonesse when it was inundated, is said to have 
derived his name. He was then governor of Lyonesse. The 
family of Vyvian gives a lion for its arms, and a white 
horse, ready caparisoned, for its crest, in memory of that 
incident." The name has also been derived from vy-vtariy 
the small water. (See Trevivion.) Vy vyan, Viuian, Vivin, 
Viven, are different orthographies of the name. 


WADDER. See Gwihtor. 

WADDON. Perhaps the same name as Vodden, 
Voddon, q. v. 

WARLEGGON, WORLEGAN. From Warlegon, a 
parish and village in West hundred, which some derive 
from war-le^gan, upon the down. 

WARN, WARNE, WEARNE. From wame, for guer- 
nen, an alder-tree. According to Lower, Warne is a curt 
pronunciation of Warren. 

WAVIS, WAVISH. See Gwavis. 

WEAKS, WEEKES, WEEKS. There was a Weekes 
family, whose habitat was the neighbourhood of Hastings ; 
but these names may sometimes be from Week St. Mary. 
D. Gilbert says Week means "lit. sweet, an epithet fre- 


quentlj applied to female saints ;*' and he renders St. Mary 
Week, " sweet or beloved St. Mary." But Week is more 
probably from wickj quik, a village. 

huel, a work, t. e., a mine ; or from some local name com- 
pounded thereof : as Wheal Batson in St. Agnes ; Wheal 
Vy vyan in Constantino ; Wheal Whidden in Kea ; Wheal- 
ancarn, the rocky work or mine ; Whealancoats, the work 
in the wood ; Whealanvor, the work by the wayside, or 
the great work or mine ; Whealreath, the red work, or the 
open work or mine ; Whealrose (in St. Agnes), the mine in 
the vale. There are also Wheal Mary, Wheal Jewell, 
Wheal Fortune, &c. 

WEARNE. See Warn. 

WEDLOCK See Vallack. 

WEEKES, WEEKS. See Weaks. 

WENDON. The same name as Wendyn, q. v. ; or from 
Wendron, formerly Gwendron, in Kerrier hundred ; from 
wen-, gwen-drorhy the white hill. 

WENDYN. A family mentioned by Gilbert as being 
from Compton Gifford in Devon; but perhaps originally of 
Cornish origin ; from wi/n-din, the white hill. 

WENMOTH, WENMOUTH. From wm-mot, the white 

WENSENT. A Cornish form of Vincent. * 

WETTER. See Gwiator. 

WETTON. When of Cornish origin, from gueth-don, the 
hill of rush. 

WHEAL. See Wbale. 

WHEAR, WHEARE. From veor, great. 

WHEEL. See Weale. 


WHETTER. See Gwiatob. 

WHIDDEN. See Gwin. 

WHILE. See Wealb. 

WICKETT. From imcket, a little village ; diminutive 
of wick, Pryce gives Wicket as the name of a place in St. 

WIDDEN. See Gwin. 

WINN, WYNN, WYNNE. From Corn, gwyn (W. id.), 

coet, the marsh in the wood ; or winnick-etha, the great marsh. 

WINNOW, anc. De ST. WINNOW. From the barton 
and matter of St. Winnow or St. Winow in West hun- 
dred ; or from Trewinnow in Creed, the dwelling on the 
moors {winnicky a marsh). According to Tonkin, the tutelar 
saint of the parish of St. Winow was St. Winnocus (the 
St. Vinoc of Moreri), a native of Armorica. 

WINSOR. From Winsor in Cubert, or Winsor in Pelynt ; 
which Pryce renders the marsh frequented by heath-cocks, 
grouse, or turkeys (win-zar), 

WINTER. See Wintour. 

in St. Keverne ; from gwyn-dour, the white or fair water ; 
or gwin-drea, the white town. Hence the surnames Vinter, 

WINWICK. Probably from Winnick in Lanreath ; 
from winnick, a marsh, a fenny or moorish place. The 
family are now extinct, except in the female line. It is 
said that the slang word ** win wicked " (pronounced in the 
West winnicked), used in Cornwall to denote that one has 
been overreached, arose from the circumstance that the last 


male representative of this family was, from tradition, 
celebrated for making good bargains, and that consequently 
everybody in Cornwall knows what is meant when the ques- 
tion is asked, " Have you been winnicked ? " t. e., taken in. 

WITHEL, WITHELL. See Withiel. 

WITHERICK. From hither-ich, the meadow place. 

WITIIEY, WITHY. From gwyth, a tree ; or gwyth-y, 
the woody stream. There is a place called Withedon in 

WITHIEL. From Withiel in Pider hundred, which, 
according to Hals, signifies a place of trees, which it was 
formerly {withen^ a tree). He says it was so called because 
the church is situated upon the manor of Withell Goose, 
I. «., Tree Wood. Withel, Withell, Withyel, would seem 
to be the same name. 

WOLVEDON. From the barton of Wolvedon in 
Probus, which Borlase calls Wolvedon, alias Golden ; from 
gol-vidn, the holy meadow ; or wolla-vtdn, the lower meadow. 

WONNACOTT, WONOCOTT. From woon-coit, the 
lower down. 

WOON. From wduy woon, goouy a down or common. 
Woon is the name of places in Luxulion and Koche. 

WORDEN. From wor-deuy upon the hill ; veor^deUy the 
great hill ; or warth-deuy the high hill. 

WORLEGAN. See Warlegqon. 

WORTH. A family of this name is said to be de- 
scended from the Worths in Devon or Somerset ; but the 
Cornish family may derive their name from worth, high. 

WREN. When of Cornish origin, from rhpUy a hill ; or it 
may be an abbreviation of Trewren. 

WROATH. This name, unless corrupted from the 


London name Roworth, Rowarth, may be from wrathy a 
giant ; whence Wrath's Hole in St. Agnes. There is, how- 
ever, a place named Roath in Wales, in Kibbor hundred ; 
perhaps from rhdth, a smooth eminence, mound, or hill. 

WYNHALL. From wyn-hdly white hill ; or wyn-hdl, 
"haUy white moor. 

WYNN, WYNNE. See Winn. 

WYNNINCK. From Winnick in Lanreath ; from win- 
nick, a marsh. 



YELLAND. See Yolland. 

YEO, YOE. According to Lower, the Yeos are an 
ancient Devonshire family. He seems to suggest that they 
may have had their name from the river Yeo in that 
county. D. , Gilbert says they were formerly persons of 
consequence in the North of Cornwall and of Devonshire, 
and that they bore arms, Argent, a chevron Gules, between 
three birds. C. S. Gilbert derives the name from Treyeo, 
near Stratton. There is also Treyew in Kenwyn, which 
Pryce renders " the above or upper town " {tre-yew, -yuh), 
Yeo, Yoe may also be Cornish forms of Hugh. 

YOE. See Yeo. 

YOLLAND, YELLAND. From youU, jowUan, the 
devil's enclosure ; or perhaps rather from yuhaUlan, the 
high church or enclosure. 

YOULDEN. From Youldon, which Pryce translates the 
devil's hill (Joul-den) ; but qy. from yuhal-don, the high hill. 




ZELLET. Qj. from ZeUh (foand Zela mnd ZemDa) in 
St. Allen. Pfjce gives ** ZearHtL^ Zeh-bui, the dry oido- 
sure, and Za-la, Sew-bin, the bUck endoeore ; or Zonlmn, 
the mow jard, or eDcloeare for straw, reed, or stubble" 
{zcnlf stubble, hawm, reed to thatch with). This most 
refer to Zula in Mawgan in Meneage. 


Androw. For Andrew. 
Davydii. For David. 
Dewy. For David. 
DzHUAN, DzHUAN. ForJohn. 
East or Est. For Justus. 

(Pronter Est, the priest of 

St. Just.) 
Elec. For Alexander. 
Est. See East. 
Faria. For Maria. 

Franki. For Francis. 

Hecka. For Dick. 

Jakeh. Said to be a form 
of John ; but perhaps rather 
of its nickname, Jack. 

Jammeh. For James. 

Jorwerth. For Edward. 

JowAN. For John. 

MiUAL. For MichaeL 

Pedyr. For Peter. 

THE end. 



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to the prefixes and aflSxes of local names, carry the work far beyond the limits within which 
the author has confined himself." — Notee and Queries. 

** A volume on which Dr. Charnock has spent much labour, with corresponding success.*' — 

" The genealogies have been followed out with much labour and research through nume- 
rous languages."— Cfoft*. 

** As a compilation, it indicates a considerable amount of philological attainment, and less 

of that perplexing Intrenaity so characteristic of etymologists, which amuses rather tlian 
instrncts." — Wettmbuter Jteview. 

" The two great requisites for the taslc were indastry and jadgment, and by the help of 
these Dr. Chamodc has prodaceU a useful and instructive, and, we may add, an entertain- 
ing and curious vol ume."— ifornindr Gtroniele. 

" To a conviction of the importance of the study of etymology, together with a love of 
the stady itself on the part of Dr. Chamock, we are indebted for the present admirable 
volume, which for conscientious inquiry, accuracy, and skill in tiie performance, could scarcely 
be surpassed in value, and, as such, is constituted an Incontestable authority in the matter 
of which it treats. It will accordingly find grateful acceptance with antiquaries, students, 
and men of letters. The work is marked by diligent research in ancient and modem 
languages, and the consultation of numerous histories and other works.** — Daily Tdegraph. 

Price Is. 6d., 12mo^ clothy lettered, 


A complete Guide for Travellers in the Peninsula ; with Maps^ Town Plans, &c. 
London : W. J. Adams, 59, Fleet Stbebt. 

Price 3«. Gd,, 12mo, cloth, lettered, 



London: W. J. Adams, 59, Fleet Street. 

" We can only say, put this nice little guide in your pocket, and go and see the country/' 
— Athenceum. 

''As a brief record of personal experience, this little volume, which would occupy small 
space in tiie corner of a knapsack, will, we have no doubt, prove a most useful companion 
to anyone who proposes to follow the author*8 footsteps through the beautiful scenery to 
be found among the mountains and valleys of the Tyrol." — Notes and Queries. 

" For full information on the Tyrol we beg to refer our readers to a concise, useful, and 
interesting little work Just published, entitled * Guide to the Tyrol,' by R. S. Gharnock." — 
Bradshaw's Continental Railway Ouide. 

" This book is not only interesting, but useful. The information it contains will enable 
the tourist to make his way through a large portion of the finest scenery in Europe with no 
more help than a light purse, a cotton umbrella, and a leather knapAck."— ifomin^ 

** Genuine, and a model of brevity."— 2)or«e/ County Chronicle. 

Preparing for publication, by the same Author, 

A Glossary of Provincial Words used in the 

County of ESSEX. 


Manorial Customs, Tenures, Services, Grants, 
etc., in the County of ESSEX.